Oxidative Stress Attenuates TLR3 Responsiveness and Impairs Anti-viral Mechanisms in Bronchial Epithelial Cells From COPD and Asthma Patients

COPD and asthma exacerbations are commonly triggered by rhinovirus infection. Potentially promoting exacerbations, impaired anti-viral signaling and attenuated viral clearance have been observed in diseased bronchial epithelium. Oxidative stress is a feature of inflammation in asthma and COPD and is prominent during exacerbations. It is not known whether oxidative stress affects the anti-viral signaling capacity. Bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic and COPD donors were infected with rhinovirus or treated with the oxidative stressor H2O2 followed by exposure to the synthetic viral replication intermediate poly(I:C). Poly(I:C) was used to ascertain a constant infection-like burden. Gene and protein levels of antioxidants as well as anti-viral responses were measured 3 and 24 h post poly(I:C) exposure. Rhinovirus infection and poly(I:C) stimulation induced protein levels of the antioxidants SOD1 and SOD2. In asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells pre-treatment with H2O2 dose-dependently decreased the antioxidant response to poly(I:C), suggesting exaggerated oxidative stress. Further, poly(I:C)-induced IFNβ gene expression was reduced after pre-treatment with H2O2. This epithelial effect was associated with a reduced expression of the pattern recognition receptors RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 both on gene and protein level. Pre-treatment with H2O2 did not alter antioxidant responses in COPD bronchial epithelial cells and, more modestly than in asthma, reduced poly(I:C)-induced I...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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What is a coronavirus? Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. Why are they called coronaviruses? The name derives from the fact that the viral capsule has a “halo” or “crown” surrounding it. What do coronaviruses do? In humans, the virus infects the airways giving rise to flu-like symptoms, a runny nose, cough, sore throat and fever, these are usually mild, but in rare cases can be lethal. Is there a vaccine against coronaviruses? No. Are there any drugs to block or treat infection? No. When were coronaviruses first discovered? In the 1960s ...
Source: David Bradley Sciencebase - Songs, Snaps, Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Sciencebase Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsThe findings of this study from the SABINA program show that SABA overuse (at least three canisters per year) is common across Europe, despite the different healthcare and reimbursement policies of each country.
Source: Advances in Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Artificial intelligence is virtually everywhere right now, especially in medtech. But are companies investing in AI just because all the cool kids are doing it, or because of what the technology could ultimately do for healthcare? What is the current state of AI in medtech and what is standing in the way of the technology reaching its full potential? Industry experts will tackle these questions and more at MD&M West in Anaheim, CA on Feb. 11 during a panel session dubbed, "Are AI-Powered Devices Really the Future for Healthcare?" As moderator, I had the opportunity to chat with the panelists this week...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Digital Health Source Type: news
How does climate change threaten the health and survival of humans? Beyond obvious threats like heatstroke, doctors and other scientists suspect climate change factored in the 2012 Dallas epidemic of West Nile encephalitis and the spread of other tropical diseases shared by mosquitos. One physician expert points to climate change as a contributing factor for allergies, asthma, worse COPD conditions, and heart attacks. Physicians will address this timely issue and more during the 2020 Texas Medical Association (TMA) Winter Conference in Austin this week.
Source: TMA News Room - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Albertson TE, Chenoweth JA, Pearson SJ, Murin S Abstract Introduction: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a disease phenotype that shares T helper lymphocyte cell Th1/neutrophilic/non-Type-2 Inflammation pathways thought to be key in COPD and Th2/eosinophilic/Type-2 inflammatory pathways of asthma. The pharmacology of treating ACOS is challenging in severe circumstances.Areas covered: This review evaluates the stepwise treatment of ACOS using pharmacological treatments used in both COPD and asthma. The most common medications involve the same inhalers used to treat COPD...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
AbstractThere are few reports investigating the relationship between bronchial asthma (BA) and heart failure (HF). We hypothesized BA may have impact on prognosis in patients with HF. Among 323 consecutive outpatients with HF, 191 patients without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were analyzed. Twenty patients had BA, most of whom (80.0%) had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF  ≥ 50%). The use of β-blockers was less frequent (55.0% vs 83.0%.p = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (133 ± 22 vs 120 ± 17 mmHg,p = 0...
Source: Heart and Vessels - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Abstract AIM: The aim of our study was to assess any association between ICS use and tracheobronchomalacia (TBM). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis on asthma and COPD patients with and without TBM. Patients were diagnosed with TBM on the basis of CT scan, flexible bronchoscopy or both. Patients were deemed to be on ICS if they were on treatment for at least 3 months. Simple logistic regression models were used to assess the association between TBM status and each proposed factor. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the association between TBM and steroid dose. RESULT...
Source: Chest - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Chest Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Xin Nee Tew, Natalie Jia Xin Lau, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Farrukh Zeeshan, Murtaza M. Tambuwala, Alaa AA. Aljabali, Sri Renukadevi Balusamy, Haribalan Perumalsamy, Gaurav Gupta, Brian G. Oliver, Alan Hsu, Peter Wark, Karosham Reddy, Ridhima Wadhwa, Philip Michael Hansbro, Kamal DuaAbstractInflammatory responses play a remarkable role in the mechanisms of acute and chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. Currently,...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Authors: Tangirala NC, O'Conor R, Wolf MS, Wisnivesky JP, Federman AD Abstract Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is the standard of care for patients with persistent asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adherence to ICS is measured using the 10-item Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), a self-reported medication adherence assessment. However, data on the validity of this measure are limited. Data were obtained from two cohort studies that examined the association of health literacy with self-management behaviors among adults ages 65 and older with asthma and adults ages 40 and ol...
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: COPD Source Type: research
Abstract Inflammatory responses play a remarkable role in the mechanisms of acute and chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. Currently, there is a resurgence in the use of drugs from natural sources for various ailments as potent therapeutics. Berberine, an alkaloid prominent in the Chinese traditional system of medicine has been reported to exert therapeutic properties in various diseases. Nevertheless, the number of studies focusing on the curative potential of berberine in inflammatory diseases involving the respiratory syst...
Source: Chemico-Biological Interactions - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Chem Biol Interact Source Type: research
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