Late onset absolute neutropenia associated with ocrelizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis: A case report and review of the literature

Ocrelizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) directed against CD20, a membrane glycosylated protein expressed on B-lymphocytes, but not plasma cells or neutrophils. Ocrelizumab structure and mechanism of action are related to rituximab, which has been used for years in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The precise mechanisms through which ocrelizumab exerts its therapeutic clinical effects are not fully elucidated but, likely, CD20 binding leads to antibody-dependent cellular cytolysis and complement-mediated lysis of CD20 expressing cells [1].
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

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There is increasing recognition of the role the microbiome plays in states of health and disease. Microbiome studies in systemic autoimmune diseases demonstrate unique microbial patterns in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus to a lesser extent, whereas there is no single bug or pattern that characterizes Multiple Sclerosis. Autoimmune diseases tend to share a predisposition for vitamin D deficiency, which alters the microbiome and integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. In this review, we summarize the influence of intestinal bacteria on the immune system, explore the microb...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Tatianna F.S. De Nardo, Paulo H.L. Bertolo, Priscila A. Bernardes, Danísio P. Munari, Gisele F. Machado, Luciana S. Jardim, Pamela R.R. Moreira, Mayara C. Rosolem, Rosemeri O. VasconcelosABSTRACTMacrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is produced by many cell types in situations of homeostasis or disease. One of its functions is to act as a proinflammatory molecule. In humans, several studies have shown that MIF levels become elevated in the serum, urine, cerebrospinal flu...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The barrier between mind and body appears to be crumbling. Clinical practice and public perception need to catch upUnlikely as it may seem, #inflammation has become a hashtag. It seems to be everywhere suddenly, up to all sorts of tricks. Rather than simply being on our side, fighting infections and healing wounds, it turns out to have a dark side as well: the role it plays in causing us harm.It ’s now clear that inflammation is part of the problem in many, if not all, diseases of the body. And targeting immune or inflammatory causes of disease has led to a series of breakthroughs, from new treatments for rheumatoid ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Mental health Psychiatry Multiple sclerosis Depression Dementia Society Medical research Science UK news Alzheimer's Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Source Type: news
We report a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, who developed rheumatoid arthritis after exposure to natalizumab. While some multiple sclerosis therapies are known to unmask autoimmune conditions, natalizumab is rarely implicated as a cause of alternative autoimmunity. This case illustrates an unusual clinical scenario which may support recent scientific work suggesting that when natalizumab blocks T helper 1 cells from entering the central nervous system, T helper 17 cells may continue to migrate into immune-privileged spaces and cause pathologic inflammation.Brief Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) pati...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Source: Clinical Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Clinical Epidemiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: IMID are associated with an increased incidence of PDs both before and after an IMID diagnosis. These results support the relevance of shared risk factors in the co-occurrence of PDs and IMID conditions. PMID: 31915099 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci Source Type: research
AbstractThe Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER) employs fixed cost-effectiveness (CE) thresholds that guide their appraisal of an intervention ’s long-term economic value. Given ICER’s rising influence in the healthcare field, we undertook an assessment of the concordance of ICER’s CE findings to the published CE findings from other research groups (i.e., “non-ICER” researchers including life science manufacturers, academics, and government institutions). Disease areas and pharmaceutical interventions for comparison were determined based on ICER evaluations conducted from 1 Janua...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
This article will give a new perspective on understanding immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases not only in animals but also in human. Emerging approaches to investigate cytokine regulation through gene therapy may be a potential approach for the tailored immunomodulation of some autoimmune diseases near in the future.
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Effectiveness of subcutaneous TCZ in NMOSD appears to be similar to that reported for the IV formulation and has an advantage of at-home administration. Prospective, comparative studies of subcutaneous TCZ for NMOSD are warranted.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
l S Abstract The innate immune system consists of a variety of elements controlling and participating in virtually all aspects of inflammation and immunity. It is crucial for host defense, but on the other hand its improper activation is also thought to be responsible for the generation of autoimmunity and therefore diseases such as autoimmune arthritides like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS) or inflammatory bowel disease. The innate immune system stands both at the beginning as well as the end of autoimmunity. On one hand, it regulates the activation of the ad...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research
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