Immunotherapy response evaluation with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in advanced HCC

AbstractBackgroundCurrently, there are no imaging predictors of immunotherapy outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study aim was to determine if stiffness changes measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) can be a predictor of immunotherapy response in patients with advanced HCC.Materials and methodsThis was a prospective study of 15 patients with biopsy proven-advanced HCC treated with Pembrolizumab. All patients had liver MRE and liver biopsy at baseline and at 6  weeks of therapy. Change in HCC stiffness on MRE was compared with overall survival (OS), time to disease progression (TTP), and number of intratumoral CD3+ T lymphocytes. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation (R);p-value 
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Semin Liver Dis DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3399534Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is the most common type of liver cancer which is derived mostly from the background of chronic inflammation. Chronic hepatitis viral infection remains one of the most common etiologies implicated in chronic liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and HCC. With such background inflammation, immunotherapy—particularly the checkpoint inhibitors—have been tested in HCC patients with unprecedented success. However, despite the initial enthusiasm, the response rate to immunotherapy remains modest in most clinical trials (approximately 20%), with mixed ...
Source: Seminars in Liver Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
AbstractImmune checkpoint inhibition suggests promising progress for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear because liver cancer cells apparently do not upregulate inhibitory checkpoint molecules. Here, we analysed whether regulatory T cells (Tregs) can alternatively trigger checkpoint inhibition pathways in HCC. Using flow cytometry we analysed expression of checkpoint molecules (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, GITR, Tim-3) on peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs and their secretion of inhibitory mediators (IL-10, IL-35, TGF-beta, galectin-9) in 116 individual...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and confers a poor prognosis. Beyond standard systemic therapy with multikinase inhibitors, recent studies demonstrate the potential for robust and durable responses from immune checkpoint inhibition in subsets of HCC patients across disease etiologies. The majority of HCC arises in the context of chronic inflammation and from within a fibrotic liver, with many cases associated with hepatitis virus infections, toxins, and fatty liver disease. Many patients also have concomitant cirrhosis which is associated with both local and syst...
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malignancy worldwide and a major cause of cancer-related mortality for which liver resection is an important curative-intent treatment option. However, many patients present with advanced disease and with underlying chronic liver disease and/or cirrhosis, limiting the proportion of patients who are surgical candidates. In addition, the development of recurrent or de novo cancers following surgical resection is common. These issues have led investigators to evaluate the benefit of neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment strategies aimed at improving resect...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises on the background of chronic liver disease. Despite the development of effective anti-viral therapeutics HCC is continuing to rise, in part driven by the epidemic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Many patients present with advanced disease out with the criteria for transplant, resection or even locoregional therapy. Currently available therapeutics for HCC are effective in a small minority of individuals. However, there has been a major global interest in immunotherapies for cancer and although HCC has lagged behind other cancers, great opportunities now exist fo...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of global cancer-related deaths. The majority of patients present with advanced disease and current medical therapy only prolongs survival by a few months.1 HCC occurs on the background of chronic liver disease in more than 90% of cases and is a paradigm for inflammation-induced cancer where the tumour microenvironment (TME) is characterised by ongoing metabolic stress and an immunosuppressive environment.2 This has led to significant interest in assessing whether immunotherapy could be an effective approach to combat this cancer.
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Authors: Kreidieh M, Zeidan YH, Shamseddine A Abstract Treatment recommendations for primary liver malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), are complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. Despite surgical options that are potentially curative, options for nonsurgical candidates include systemic therapy, radiotherapy (RT), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is now in routine use for the treatment of lung cancer, and there is growing evidence supporting its use in liver tumors. SBRT has...
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
Authors: Buonaguro L, Mauriello A, Cavalluzzo B, Petrizzo A, Tagliamonte M Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered an immunogenic tumor that arises in chronically inflamed livers due to underlying chronic liver disease caused by viral and non-viral pathogenesis. This inflammation leads to tumor development and is associated to higher tumor immunogenicity. For this reason immunotherapeutic approaches may be suitable therapeutic strategies for HCC. Indeed, several preclinical and clinical data support this hypothesis showing that immunotherapy and even more their combination may be a good alternative ca...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Joanna Mikulak1,2, Elena Bruni1,2, Ferdinando Oriolo1,2, Clara Di Vito1 and Domenico Mavilio1,2* 1Unit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy 2Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy The liver is considered a preferential tissue for NK cells residency. In humans, almost 50% of all intrahepatic lymphocytes are NK cells that are strongly imprinted in a liver-specific manner and show a broad spectrum of cellular heterogeneity. Hepatic NK (he-NK) cells play key roles in tuning liver immune response in b...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: In conclusion, Baishouwu extract exhibited potent effect on the development of HCC by altering TLR4/MyD88/ NF-κB signaling pathway in the sequence of hepatic inflammation-fibrosis-cancer, which provided novel insights into the mechanism of Baishouwu extract as a candidate for the pretreatment of HCC in the future. Introduction Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world and the third cause of cancer-related deaths (Jemal et al., 2011). Chronic inflammation, caused by chemical, biological and physical factors, is found to be related to certain human cancers. The effe...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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