Polio outbreaks in Africa caused by mutation of strain in vaccine

New cases of highly infectious disease that should be ‘consigned to the history books’ reported in Nigeria, the DRC, CAR and AngolaNew cases of polio linked to the oral vaccine have been reported in four African countries and more children are now being paralysed by vaccine-derived viruses than those infected by viruses in the wild, according to global health numbers.The World Health Organization (WHO) and partners identified nine new cases caused by the vaccine in Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic and Angola last week. Along with seven other African countries with outbreaks, cases have also been reported in Asia. In Afghanistan and Pakistan polio remains endemic, and in Pakistan officials have been accused ofcovering up vaccine-related cases.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Global development Polio Infectious diseases Health Medical research Children Africa Nigeria Democratic Republic of the Congo Central African Republic Angola Source Type: news

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Polio cases around have declined globally by more than 99 percent since 1988, but the type 1 poliovirus remains endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan, where it has made a comeback this year and infected 102 people. Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPS By James ReinlUNITED NATIONS, Nov 20 2019 (IPS) Efforts to wipe polio off the face of the planet took a step forward this week, with a multibillion-dollar fundraiser in the Middle East helping eradication schemes tackle a virus that disproportionately kills and cripples children in poor countries. Donor governments and philanthropists pledged $2.6 billion on Tuesday in Abu Dhabi to...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Aid Asia-Pacific Development & Aid Featured Global Headlines Health IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse Poverty & SDGs Regional Categories TerraViva United Nations polio eradication World Health Organization (WHO) Source Type: news
Countries with endemic polio have revised emergency action plans to innovate and intensify strategies to reach and vaccinate every child in underimmunized populations.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Outbreaks Polio (poliomyelitis) Polio Vaccination Source Type: news
A young boy in Pakistan receives an oral polio vaccine (OPV). Over the last 30 years huge progress has been made against polio and it is now only endemic in 2 countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan, with only 33 cases confirmed cases last year. Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPSBy Tharanga YakupitiyageUNITED NATIONS, May 1 2019 (IPS) Since the introduction of vaccines, diseases such as measles and polio were quickly becoming a thing of the past. However, the world’s progress on immunisation is now being threatened. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 85 percent of the world’s children received basic va...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Featured Global Headlines Health IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse North America Population Regional Categories TerraViva United Nations diptheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) human papillomavirus (HPV) Measles Vaccines World Health Organ Source Type: news
Abstract BACKGROUND: Afghanistan remains among the three countries with endemic wild poliovirus transmission, and high population immunity levels are required to interrupt transmission and prevent outbreaks. Surveillance and vaccination of children in Afghanistan have been challenging due to security issues limiting accessibility in certain areas. METHODS: A serosurvey was conducted in 2013 within accessible enumeration areas (EAs) among children aged
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: As in endemic settings, outbreak responses will benefit from communications strategies focused on enhancing trust in vaccinators, institutions and the vaccine, alongside making community support visible. Disease facts may help motivate acceptance, and enhanced logistics information may help facilitate caregiver availability at the door. Quelling rumors early may be important to prevent them from becoming threats. PMID: 29958738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
The 50 million doses of polio vaccine stored in laboratory refrigerators all over Nigeria had a big weekend planned for them. If things had gone as intended, on Saturday morning, May 5, all of the little vials would have been trucked, flown, biked, walked around the all 36 states of the nation – to be delivered to every single one of the 49,882,036 known Nigerian children under 5 years old. But, as things developed, an outbreak of circulating virus in one region of the country upended those plans for routine immunization, replacing them for now with a crisis response in the affected area. The 50 million doses will in...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized healthytime Nigeria onetime vaccines Source Type: news
Abstract Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
This report describes progress in polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January-December 2017 and updates previous reports (3-5). No WPV cases have been reported in Nigeria since September 2016; the latest case had onset of paralysis on August 21, 2016 (3). However, polio surveillance has not been feasible in insurgent-controlled areas of Borno State. Implementation of new strategies has helped mitigate the challenges of reaching and vaccinating children living in security-compromised areas, and other strategies are planned. Despite these initiatives, however, approximately 130,000-210,000 (28%-45%) of the estimat...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
ConclusionFuture research on echinococcosis is anticipated to demonstrate whether the epidemiology, diagnosis and recombinant vaccines/antibodies relating to echinococcosis can meet the quality standards (purity, potency, safety and efficacy) defined by the World Health Organization. Research work should be carried out on the epidemiology and serodiagnosis of echinocossis in the different areas of Pakistan, which will be useful for the proper eradication of echinococcosis in this region. The health department should implement awareness-raising campaigns for the general public in order to reduce the burden of disease.
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This report summarizes the current status of poliovirus containment and progress since the last report (2), and outlines remaining challenges. Within 30 countries, 86 facilities have been designated by the relevant national authorities (usually the Ministry of Health) to become poliovirus-essential facilities for the continued storage or handling of PV2 materials; each country is responsible for ensuring that these facilities meet all biorisk management requirements. PMID: 28640795 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
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