From Stroke to Dementia: a Comprehensive Review Exposing Tight Interactions Between Stroke and Amyloid- β Formation

AbstractStroke and Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) are cerebral pathologies with high socioeconomic impact that can occur together and mutually interact. Vascular factors predisposing to cerebrovascular disease have also been specifically associated with development of AD, and acute stroke is known to increase the risk to develop d ementia.Despite the apparent association, it remains unknown how acute cerebrovascular disease and development of AD are precisely linked and act on each other. It has been suggested that this interaction is strongly related to vascular deposition of amyloid- β (Aβ), i.e., cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Furthermore, the blood–brain barrier (BBB), perivascular space, and the glymphatic system, the latter proposedly responsible for the drainage of solutes from the brain parenchyma, may represent key pathophysiological pathways linking stroke, Aβ d eposition, and dementia.In this review, we propose a hypothetic connection between CAA, stroke, perivascular space integrity, and dementia. Based on relevant pre-clinical research and a few clinical case reports, we speculate that impaired perivascular space integrity, inflammation, hypoxia, and BBB breakdown after stroke can lead to accelerated deposition of A β within brain parenchyma and cerebral vessel walls or exacerbation of CAA. The deposition of Aβ in the parenchyma would then be the initiating event leading to synaptic dysfunction, inducing cognitive decline and d...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of the ReviewWith no disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) currently established, a priority for public health is prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. Treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may provide such an opportunity.Recent FindingsWhile the pathology of athero- and arteriolosclerotic cerebrovascular disease was once thought of as distinct from AD pathobiology, accumulating evidence suggests that there is more overlap in vascular and AD-related pathologies than previously recognized. CVD and its risk factors are associated with cognitive decline and...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
This study provides strong evidence that following a healthy lifestyle can substantially extend the years a person lives disease-free." Commentary on Recent Evidence for Cognitive Decline to Precede Amyloid Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/01/commentary-on-recent-evidence-for-cognitive-decline-to-precede-amyloid-aggregation-in-alzheimers-disease/ I can't say that I think the data presented in the research noted here merits quite the degree of the attention that it has been given in the popular science press. It is interesting, but not compelling if its role...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Over longer timescales involving large-scale funding, meaningful progress only occurs in those lines of research and development that enjoy broad public support and understanding. While it is the case that small groups of philanthropists and visionaries are those who do the hard (and largely unacknowledged) work to create new possibilities, of those options, only those that are welcomed and desired by the masses are brought into reality. In the matter of rejuvenation therapies, we presently stand somewhere in an awkward transition phase in which the experts are largely convinced, but the public remains largely ignorant or ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
In this study, we investigated the link between AF and senescence markers through the assessment of protein expression in the tissue lysates of human appendages from patients in AF, including paroxysmal (PAF) or permanent AF (PmAF), and in sinus rhythm (SR). The major findings of the study indicated that the progression of AF is strongly related to the human atrial senescence burden as determined by p53 and p16 expression. The stepwise increase of senescence (p53, p16), prothrombotic (TF), and proremodeling (MMP-9) markers observed in the right atrial appendages of patients in SR, PAF, and PmAF points toward multiple inter...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractBackgroundPatients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia experience reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Technetium 99m ECD brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT) is a beneficial modality for diagnosing dementia and identifying high-risk patients with mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of brain perfusion using99mTc-ECD SPECT in patients with AF and dementia.MethodsOf a total of 405 consecutive patients diagnosed with AF as cardiac outpatients with dementia using the Mini-Mental State Examination...
Source: EJNMMI Research - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Dickie DA, Quinn TJ, Dawson J Abstract Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to characterise the appearance of the brain in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), ischaemic stroke, cognitive impairment, and dementia. SVD is a major cause of stroke and dementia; features of SVD include white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin, lacunes of presumed vascular origin, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces. Cognitive impairment and dementia have traditionally been stratified into subtypes of varying origin, e.g., vascular dementia versus dementia of the Alzheimer's type (Al...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Funding Opportunity RFA-NS-20-013 from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. Despite established associations between white matter lesions and cognitive impairment including dementia, the volume, anatomical location, and other key cellular and molecular characteristics of white matter lesions that are both necessary and sufficient are unknown, as are the comorbid clinical factors that may modify (including protect from) these effects. Therefore, this initiative will support one large prospective clinical research study in the U.S. studying individuals with white matter lesions at risk for cognitive decline to determine ...
Source: NIH Funding Opportunities (Notices, PA, RFA) - Category: Research Source Type: funding
This study presents the effects of berberine (BBR) on the aging process resulting in a promising extension of lifespan in model organisms. BBR extended the replicative lifespan, improved the morphology, and boosted rejuvenation markers of replicative senescence in human fetal lung diploid fibroblasts. BBR also rescued senescent cells with late population doubling (PD). Furthermore, the senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)-positive cell rates of late PD cells grown in the BBR-containing medium were ~72% lower than those of control cells, and its morphology resembled that of young cells. Mechanistically...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Lebouvier T, Chen Y, Duriez P, Pasquier F, Bordet R Abstract INTRODUCTIONMidlife hypertension has been consistently linked with increased risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Observational studies and randomized trials show that the use of antihypertensive therapy is associated with a lesser incidence or prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia. However, whether anti-hypertensive agents specifically target the pathological process of AD remains elusive.AREAS COVEREDThis review of literature provides an update on the clinical and preclinical arguments supporting anti-AD properties of ...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
In this study, by adenovirus-mediated delivery and inducible transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate the proliferation of both HCs and SCs by combined Notch1 and Myc activation in in vitro and in vivo inner ear adult mouse models. These proliferating mature SCs and HCs maintain their respective identities. Moreover, when presented with HC induction signals, reprogrammed adult SCs transdifferentiate into HC-like cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, our data suggest that regenerated HC-like cells likely possess functional transduction channels and are able to form connections with adult auditory neurons. Epige...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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