Hashimotos’ Thyroiditis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinic and therapy

Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical Endocrinology &MetabolismAuthor(s): Francesca Ragusa, Poupak Fallahi, Giusy Elia, Debora Gonnella, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Claudia Giusti, Leonid.P. Churilov, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Alessandro AntonelliAbstractHashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), the most frequent autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs), is the leading cause of hypothyroidism in the iodine-sufficient areas of the world. About 20-30% of patients suffers from HT, whose cause is thought to be a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors that causes the loss of immunological tolerance, with a consequent autoimmune attack to the thyroid tissue and appearance of the disease.The pathologic features of lymphocytic infiltration, especially of T cells, and follicular destruction are the histological hallmark of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), that lead to gradual atrophy and fibrosis. An important role in the immune-pathogenesis of AITDs is due to chemokines and cytokines.In about 20% of patients, AITDs are associated with other organ specific/systemic autoimmune disorders.Many studies have demonstrated the relationship between papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and AITD.The treatment of hypothyroidism, as result of AIT, consists in daily assumption of synthetic levothyroxine.
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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We describe key sonographic findings and suggest a standard checklist that might be considered while performing and interpreting thyr oid US in neonates and children.
Source: Pediatric Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn our sample of 11 Caucasian patients with thyroid dysfunction related with anti-PD1, we found low frequency of ATA positive titers, comparable to other recent reports in others ethnicities, which could suggest that silent thyroiditis due to pembrolizumab or nivolumab has a different pathogenesis from the classical autoimmune spontaneous thyroiditis. Further investigations are required to completely understand the immune mechanisms involved.
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Horm Metab Res 2019; 51: 296-301 DOI: 10.1055/a-0856-1044Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells caused by leukocytes and antibody-mediated immune processes accompanied by hypothyroidism. In recent years, evidence has emerged pointing to various roles for vitamin D, including, proliferation and differentiation of normal and cancer cells, cardiovascular function, and immunomodulation. Vitamin D deficiency has been especially demonstrated in HT patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D on circulating thyroi...
Source: Hormone and Metabolic Research - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Endocrine Care Source Type: research
Maunil K. Desai1 and Roberta Diaz Brinton2,3* 1School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States 2Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States 3Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States Women have a higher incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases than men, and 85% or more patients of multiple autoimmune diseases are female. Women undergo sweeping endocrinological changes at least twice during their lifetime, puberty and menopause, with many women undergoin...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Roser Calvo* Patient Safety, Safety Science, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Gaithersburg, MD, United States Immune-related hematological adverse events are amongst the rare but potentially life-threatening complications of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The spectrum of these toxicities is broadening as the number of patients exposed to these agents is increasing. Yet, they are still relatively unknown to many clinicians, possibly due to a lack of specific diagnostic criteria, which poses a challenge for their recognition and proper reporting, and partly due to their low incidence, often too low to be noted in most c...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionAMH levels were decreased in both natural and premature postmenopausal women and could be used as predictor of menopause among women with autoimmune thyroiditis.
Source: Middle East Fertility Society Journal - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Pomahacova R, Zamboryova J, Paterova P, Fiklik K, Cerna Z, Lad V, Skalicka E, Huml M, Sykora J Abstract BACKGROUND: The prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), as the most common autoimmune disease (AD) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is steadily rising in children. The aim of this study was to determine the coexistence of other AD and thyroid carcinoma (TC) in AIT. METHODS: The cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary center comprised AIT children (
Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub Source Type: research
Conclusion AMH levels were decreased in both natural and premature postmenopausal women and could be used as predictor of menopause among women with autoimmune thyroiditis.
Source: Middle East Fertility Society Journal - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractOncogene-induced senescence (OIS) explains the phenomenon of cellular senescence triggered by the action of oncogenes. It is a mechanism adopted by a cell to inhibit progression of benign tumors into malignancy, occurs in premalignant lesions, and is almost never present in malignant lesions.BRAF mutations occur in about 40 –45% of all papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and of which 99.7% is theBRAFV600E mutation. A unique phenotype of theBRAFV600E mutation is the upregulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) on thyrocyte membranes. Despite the overexpression of the receptor,BRAFV600E cells...
Source: Hormones and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ous M Abstract Oral disorders were observed in children with congenital hypothyroidism, lately apparent because of difficulties of feeding, swallowing disorders, and macroglossia. Macroglossia was also a component of the severe acquired myxedema, particularly observed in hypothyroidism related to autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis beyond menopause. Lingual ectopy in children and adults could determine respiratory gene or swallowing difficulties, and were detectable by visual examination and the endobuccal touch. Expression of these events was completely minimized since the neonatal screening of congenital hypothyroid...
Source: Presse Medicale - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Presse Med Source Type: research
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