Incretin Hormones in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus;Effect of Metformin Treatment

Condition:   Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Interventions:   Drug: Metformin;   Drug: Placebo Sponsor:   Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis Not yet recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials

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From the Incretin Concept and the Discovery of GLP-1 to Today's Diabetes Therapy Jens Juul Holst* Department of Biomedical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Researchers have been looking for insulin-stimulating factors for more than 100 years, and in the 1960ties it was definitively proven that the gastrointestinal tract releases important insulinotropic factors upon oral glucose intake, so-called incretin hormones. The first significant factor identified was the duodenal glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GIP, wh...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Incretins [dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA)] and sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) therapy steadily decreases the HbA1c level, and risk of developing diabetic incidents is reduced to between 333 and 465 cases among 6122 treated patients. Avoided cost for therapy of diabetes incidents account for between 305 and 510 thousand BGN. Introduction Incretin (DPP-4i and GLP-1 RA) and SGLT-2i groups are now routinely used for type 2 diabetes therapy and comprise a large number of medicinal products (Cheung et al., 2009; Lov...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Bariatric surgery appears to be capable of partially reversing the obesity-related epigenome. The identification of potential epigenetic biomarkers predictive for the success of bariatric surgery may open new doors to personalized therapy for severe obesity. Introduction Obesity is currently a huge healthcare problem, worldwide, and is a risk factor for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease and cancer (1). As the prevalence of obesity reaches pandemic proportions, this metabolic disease is estimated to become the biggest cause of mortality in the near future (2). In fact,...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of pancreatic beta cells through cell injury caused primarily by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+). The pathophysiological basis of T1DM seems to be an imbalance between a reduced function of T regulatory lymphocytes and an increased inflammatory activity of Th17 lymphocytes caused by increased production of inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IFN-gamma due to environmental factors and genetic predisposition. The preservation of the reserve of beta cells in new-onset T1DM and latent autoimmune diab...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) lack endogenous insulin production and therefore need administration of exogenous insulin to promote normal glucose utilization and storage and regulate glycogen break-down, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, and ketogenesis [1]. The long-term insulin therapy, however, leads to the presence of obesity or overweight and even metabolic syndrome in these patients, which drive development of insulin resistance and may lead to a more aggressive β-cell apoptosis [2,3].
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractIt has been well established that bone fragility is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, and both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for fragility fractures. Diabetes may negatively affect bone health by unbalancing several pathways: bone formation, bone resorption, collagen formation, inflammatory cytokine, muscular and incretin system, bone marrow adiposity and calcium metabolism. The purpose of this narrative review is to explore the current understanding of pathophysiological pathways underlying bone fragility in diabetics. In particular, the review will focus on the peculiar cellular...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
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