Hemorrhage Associated Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

AbstractTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem for over 3.17 million people in the US, attracting increasing public attentions. Understanding the underlying mechanism of TBI is urgent for better diagnosis and treatment. Here, we examined the hypothesis that cerebral hemorrhagic coagulation and subsequent immune cells infiltration causes the progressive mechanisms of brain injury in moderate fluid percussion injury model. This represents a subdural hematoma and hemorrhagic head injury. We found increased hemorrhagic lesions and infarct volume in the injured brain with increment of pressure. The extent of hemorrhage was also validated by the bio-distribution of fluorescent tracer in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathway after the injury. Bio-distribution of tracer was specifically diminished at the site of hemorrhage resulting from coagulation, which blocked the interstitial and CSF movement of the tracer. Increased expression of coagulation factor XII and necrotic cell death in and around the impact site confirmed the reason for this blockade. Different biomarkers, including immune cells accumulation and neuronal death showed that blood-brain barrier disruption played an important role for induction of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration around the impact site. Our results suggest that instant hemorrhagic injury resulting from rupturing the brain blood vessels intertwined with coagulation causes onsite perivascular inflammation and neurodegeneration. Understand...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: In older adults with TBI, moderate disability or worse is common 6 months after injury. Over 1 in 5 of older adults with TBI died by 6 months, usually due to non-head causes. Patients with TBI or traumatic intracranial hemorrhage did not have improved functional outcomes with initial triage to a trauma center. PMID: 31917495 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Accident and Emergency Nursing - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Acad Emerg Med Source Type: research
The objective of this study is to evaluate the need for routine repeat head CT scans in patients with mild to moderate head injury and an initial positive abnormal CT scan. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients presenting to the emergency department from January 2016 to December 2017 with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores> 8 and an initial abnormal CT scan, who underwent repeat CT during their in-hospital medical management. Patients who underwent surgery after the first CT scan, had a GCS score
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case ReportsAuthor(s): E.W.M. Engelmann, C. Tinley, A.B. van AsAbstractA unique case of vision loss in a two-year-old boy after sustaining a head injury as a pedestrian versus car was seen at our paediatric trauma unit. A CT brain was negative for fracture, intra-cranial haemorrhage and contusion. There were no neurological symptoms and no signs of abuse. Ophthalmological examination demonstrated retinal haemorrhages, cotton wool spots and Purtscher flecken that are pathognomonic for the diagnosis of Purtscher's retinopathy. This occlu...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur results demonstrate that signs and symptoms of orbital fractures may be useful for predicting these injuries, and a decision instrument could be used in the ED to identify patients likely to benefit from extending the radiation field to include the orbits where CT of the head is already planned. This work is however exploratory; and further prospective validation is required before a robust instrument can be recommended for clinical use.
Source: Emergency Radiology - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Morinaga Y, Nii K, Sakamoto K, Inoue R, Mitsutake T, Hanada H Abstract Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a clinical condition characterized by abnormal paroxysmal surges in sympathetic nervous system activity. PSH is known to occur after severe head injury and hypoxic encephalopathy. Cases of PSH that develop after stroke have been reported worldwide; however, PSH is not commonly reported in the field of stroke research in Japan. Some studies have suggested that gabapentin may improve the symptoms of PSH. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the efficacy of trazodone fo...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Langer KG Abstract Memory and forgetfulness have been viewed since antiquity from perspectives of physical, emotional, and spiritual states of well-being, and conceptualized philosophically. Numerous discussions of memory loss, or case reports, existed, but a fundamental advance in conceptualization of memory loss as a pathological clinical phenomenon originated when Sauvages classified "amnesia" as a medical disorder, in 1763. Originally, amnesia was recognized as a weakening or dissolution of memory, according to a taxonomy that ascribed known causes to the disorder. Etiologic factors included ...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research
We report the case of waterskiing-related acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) in an adolescent who was successfully treated with endoscopic assisted hematoma evacuation. An 18-year-old male sustained head injury during waterskiing and was referred to our hospital. He had a history of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage two years ago. Neurological examination showed mild left hemiparesis and altered consciousness. Computed tomography (CT) indicated ASDH. Cranioplastic craniotomy following rapid mannitol infusion was performed. After dural incision, a rigid endoscope was introduced through the craniotomy, and a malleable suction ca...
Source: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Feixia Zheng1*, Xiuyun Ye1, Xulai Shi1, Zhongdong Lin1, Zuqin Yang1 and Longxiang Jiang2* 1Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital &Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Wenzhou Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Wenzhou, China Background: Hyponatremia has frequently been described as a common complication associated with bacterial meningitis, though its frequency and clinical course in children with bacterial meningitis are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the frequen...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion We have reviewed the literature and identified blood biomarkers with the highest discriminative abilities as determined by operating characteristics in four commonly encountered clinical situations: diagnosing concussion, predicting the need for a CT scan after mTBI, predicting delayed recovery after mTBI, and predicting poor outcome after sTBI. The top performers in each category may provide insight into pathogenic mechanisms of TBI that most influence the measured endpoint. Nonetheless, many challenges remain before these biomarkers can be incorporated into clinical practice. In particular, it remains unclear...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Fernando Zanela Areas1,2, Marcelo Liborio Schwarzbold1,2,3,4, Alexandre Paim Diaz1,4, Igor Kunze Rodrigues3,5,6, Daniel Santos Sousa3,7, Camila Leite Ferreira8, João Quevedo8,9, Katia Lin1,3,10, Emil Kupek3,11, Cristiane Ritter12,13, Felipe Dal Pizzol3,12,13 and Roger Walz1,2,3,10* 1Centro de Neurociências Aplicadas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Hospital Universitário, Florianópolis, Brazil 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, UFSC, Florianópolis, Brazil 3Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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