Can Salient Stimuli Enhance Responses in Disorders of Consciousness? A Systematic Review

AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiagnostic classification of patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) is based on clinician ’s observation of volitional behaviours. However, patients’ caregivers often report higher levels of responsiveness with respect to those observed during the clinical assessment. Thus, increasing efforts have been aimed at comprehending the effects of self-referential and emotional stimuli on pa tients’ responsiveness. Here we systematically reviewed the original experimental studies that compared behavioural and electrophysiological responses with salient vs. neutral material in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in minimally conscious state.Recent FindingsMost of the reviewed studies showed that salient stimuli (i.e. patient ’s own or familiar faces, patient’s own name, and familiar voices) seem to elicit a higher amount of behavioural or electrophysiological responses with respect to neutral pictures or sounds. Importantly, a quite high percentage of patients seem to respond to salient stimuli only.SummaryThe present review could foster use of personally salient stimuli in assessing DoC. However, the low overall quality of evidence and some limitations in the general reviewing process might induce caution in transferring these suggestions into clinical practice.
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Lee J, Phillips I, Lynch Z Abstract Mobile cranes account for a considerable proportion of crane-related accidents in South Korea. The authors used descriptive and non-parametric statistics to analyse 245 fatal accidents in South Korea from 2007 to 2016. The results showed that human error and crane problems were the main cause of accidents; riggers accounted for the largest number of deaths. To reduce the number of mobile crane fatalities, the authors made recommendations in four areas: educational aspects, mobile crane aspects, technical aspects and other issues. Firstly, business owners need to establis...
Source: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics - Category: Occupational Health Tags: Int J Occup Saf Ergon Source Type: research
"All options are on the table given both the level of budget deficit we may have for this biennium and for the next biennium," Brown said.
Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Source Type: research
Worldwide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) had reduced the incidence of pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children.1,2 Despite increasing vaccine coverage and a reduction in the prevalence of IPD, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a significant cause of non-Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children.3 HUS is characterized by the presence of the clinical triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury.
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
AbstractStrain QCG of the aerobic bacteriaBacillus cereus is capable of producing 1-naphthol from naphthalene, this strain was first isolated and characterized in this study. Strain QCG was mutagenized to enhance 1-naphthol production, using atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) technology. Then, a microbial clone screening system was used to accelerate the operation. Meanwhile, a novel color-mediated high-throughput screening using 4-aminoantipyrine was performed to screen mutants. The optimal mutant strain QCG4 produced 19.58 ±0.34 mg∙L−1 1-naphthol from naphthalene that was 47.32% higher than tha...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
AbstractThe conformation-dependent activity of azobenzene combretastatin A4 (Azo-CA4) provides a unique approach to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, due to the light-triggered conformation transition of its azobenzene moiety. Under hypoxic tumor microenvironment, however, the high expression of azoreductase can reduce azobenzene to aniline. It was postulated that the Azo-CA4 might be degraded under hypoxia, resulting in the decrease of its anti-tumor activity. The aim of this study was to verify such hypothesis in HeLa cellsin vitro. The quantitative drug concentration analysis shows the ratio-metric formation of d...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
AbstractElimination of leaked oil from aquatic environs has recently gained importance owing to the disasters associated with leakages into marine environments. The need for an environmentally friendly and viable line of action concerning the environs has brought forward numerous affordable, non-toxic, and decomposable materials; further, diverse biomasses for fabricating nano- to micro-scale materials, membranes, and sponges/aerogels have also been incorporated for the elimination and retrieval of oils from water. Moreover, selectivity, sorption capacity, and reusability of these materials after the retrieval of oils are ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
AbstractCoal-based ethanol production by hydration of ethylene is limited by the low equilibrium ethylene conversion at elevated temperature. To improve ethylene conversion, coupling hydration of ethylene with a potential ethanol consumption reaction was analyzed thermodynamically. Five reactions have been attempted and compared: (1) dehydration of ethanol to ethyl ether (2C2H5OH ⇔ C2H5OC2H5 + H2O), (2) dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde (C2H5OH ⇔ CH3CHO + H2), (3) esterification of acetic acid with ethanol (C2H5OH + CH3COOH ⇔ CH3COOC2H5 + H2O), (4) dehydrogenation of ethanol to ethyl acetate (2C2H5O...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
AbstractThe traditional approach to solvent selection in the extractive distillation process strictly focuses on the change in the relative volatility of light-heavy components induced by the solvent. However, the total annual cost of the process may not be minimal when the solvent induces the largest change in relative volatility. This work presents a heuristic method for selecting the optimal solvent to minimize the total annual cost. The functional relationship between the relative volatility and the total annual cost is established, where the main factors, such as the relative volatility of the light-heavy components a...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
AbstractAn improved matrix method for generating distillation configurations with (N−1) and less than (N−1) columns was proposed for the separation of anN-component mixture into essentially pure product streams based on the concepts of streams matrix and 0 –1 matrixes proposed by Agrawal. In contrast with the matrix method developed by Agrawal, the present method removes the intermediate process centered on the splits, and complex column configurations, allowing the direct generation of multi-feeds and multi-product streams. Furthermore, certain con figurations that cannot be generated directly and that a...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Neurology | Neuroscience | Study