What can artificial intelligence teach us about the molecular mechanisms underlying disease?

AbstractWhile molecular imaging with positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography already reports on tumour molecular mechanisms on a macroscopic scale, there is increasing evidence that there are multiple additional features within medical images that can further improve tumour characterization, treatment prediction and prognostication. Early reports have already revealed the power of radiomics to personalize and improve patient management and outcomes. What remains unclear is how these additional metrics relate to underlying molecular mechanisms of disease. Furthermore, the ability to deal with increasingly large amounts of data from medical images and beyond in a rapid, reproducible and transparent manner is essential for future clinical practice. Here, artificial intelligence (AI) may have an impact. AI encompasses a broad range of ‘intelligent’ functions performed by computers, including language processing, knowledge representation, problem solving and planning. While rule-based algorithms, e.g. computer-aided diagnosis, have been in use for medical imaging since the 1990s, the resurgent interest in AI is related to impr ovements in computing power and advances in machine learning (ML). In this review we consider why molecular and cellular processes are of interest and which processes have already been exposed to AI and ML methods as reported in the literature. Non-small-cell lung cancer is used as an exemplar and t he focus of ...
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: PhytomedicineAuthor(s): Jian-Shu Lou, Li-Ping Zhao, Zhi-Hui Huang, Xia-Yin Chen, Jing-Ting Xu, William Chi-Shing TAI, Karl W.K. Tsim, Yi-Tao Chen, Tian Xie
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Authors: Han AR, Lee S, Han S, Lee YJ, Kim JB, Seo EK, Jung CH Abstract Radiotherapy using ionizing radiation is a major therapeutic modality for advanced human lung cancers. However, ionizing radiation itself can induce malignant behaviors such as cancer cell migration and invasion, leading to local recurrence or distal metastasis. Therefore, safer and more effective agents that inhibit the metastatic behaviors of cancer cells in radiotherapy are needed. As a part of our ongoing search for new radiotherapy enhancers from medicinal herbs, we isolated the following triterpenoids from the ethanol extract of Centella ...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: European Journal of RadiologyAuthor(s): Tao Yu
Source: European Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: The Annals of Thoracic SurgeryAuthor(s): Jean-Baptiste Leclère, Ludovic Fournel, Harry Etienne, Charbel Al Zreibi, Ilaria Onorati, Arnaud Roussel, Yves Castier, Emmanuel Martinod, Françoise Le Pimpec-Barthes, Marco Alifano, Jalal Assouad, Pierre Mordant, thoracic surgery units of Paris Public Hospitals.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Condition:   Lung Cancer, Non-Small Cell Interventions:   Drug: Dostarlimab;   Drug: Pembrolizumab;   Drug: Chemotherapy Sponsor:   GlaxoSmithKline Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
CONCLUSIONS: Aaptamine retarded the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells by selectively targeting the pathway PI3K/AKT/GSK3β suggesting it as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for repressing tumorigenesis and progression of NSCLC in humans. PMID: 33027592 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Pharmaceutical Biology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Pharm Biol Source Type: research
Conclusion: As far as we know, this study will be the first meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of the vein-first and artery-first surgical technique of segmentectomy for patients diagnosed with resectable non–small cell lung cancer. Due to the nature of the disease and intervention methods, RCTs may be inadequate, and we will carefully consider inclusion in high-quality, non-RCTs, but this may result in high heterogeneity and affect the reliability of the results. INPLASY registration number: INPLASY202080062
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Study Protocol Systematic Review Source Type: research
Rationale: Anlotinib has been proved to be effective in advanced refractory non-small cell lung cancer. Patient concerns: A 47-year-old female non-smoker was admitted due to persistent chest tightness for a month. Diagnoses: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type advanced primary lung adenocarcinoma without brain or bone metastasis. Interventions: The patient failed 2 lines of pemetrexed/docetaxel plus carboplatin and third-line erlotinib. Fourth-line anlotinib was administered thereafter. Outcomes: The pulmonary lesions showed partial remission 5 months after anlotinib monotherapy. The patient dem...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Source: OncoTargets and Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: OncoTargets and Therapy Source Type: research
ConclusionIn proton-based 4D Robust SBRT, the interplay effects degraded the target dose distribution but were mitigated using iso-energy layer repainting techniques. However, there was no significant correlation between the number of repainting layers and improvements in the dose distributions. The optimal layer repainting times based on the interplay effect index were ascertained according to the patient characteristics.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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