What can artificial intelligence teach us about the molecular mechanisms underlying disease?

AbstractWhile molecular imaging with positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography already reports on tumour molecular mechanisms on a macroscopic scale, there is increasing evidence that there are multiple additional features within medical images that can further improve tumour characterization, treatment prediction and prognostication. Early reports have already revealed the power of radiomics to personalize and improve patient management and outcomes. What remains unclear is how these additional metrics relate to underlying molecular mechanisms of disease. Furthermore, the ability to deal with increasingly large amounts of data from medical images and beyond in a rapid, reproducible and transparent manner is essential for future clinical practice. Here, artificial intelligence (AI) may have an impact. AI encompasses a broad range of ‘intelligent’ functions performed by computers, including language processing, knowledge representation, problem solving and planning. While rule-based algorithms, e.g. computer-aided diagnosis, have been in use for medical imaging since the 1990s, the resurgent interest in AI is related to impr ovements in computing power and advances in machine learning (ML). In this review we consider why molecular and cellular processes are of interest and which processes have already been exposed to AI and ML methods as reported in the literature. Non-small-cell lung cancer is used as an exemplar and t he focus of ...
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

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Authors: Zhou JY, Liu SY, Wu YL Abstract Introduction: Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumors worldwide. Over the past decade, the emergence of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) has ushered in a new era of lung cancer treatment. Therefore, clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of these drugs are important.Areas covered: This review provides an overview on the safety of three classes of EGFR-TKIs and discusses the adverse events (AEs) and reactions reported in the literature.Expert opinion: EGFR-TKIs significantly improve progression-free survival and...
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Drug Saf Source Type: research
Condition:   Dacomitinib for EGFR Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) With Brain Metastases Intervention:   Drug: Dacomitinib Sponsor:   Guangdong Association of Clinical Trials Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Interview with Naiyer A. Rizvi, MD, author of Durvalumab With or Without Tremelimumab vs Standard Chemotherapy in First-line Treatment of Metastatic Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: The MYSTIC Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial
Source: JAMA Specialty Journals Author Interviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: podcasts
Authors: Yin G, Hua X, Liao Y, Huang C, Fan X Abstract The aim of this work was to determine whether tumor resection could improve the prognosis of M1a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We obtained patient data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and used propensity score matching (PSM) to reduce the influence of confounding variables. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent prognostic factors, and the prediction results were visualized using the nomogram. A total of 772 patients with and without tumor resection were enrolled ...
Source: Cancer Investigation - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Invest Source Type: research
In conclusion, this study indicated that XLEP could suppress the proliferation of EGFR-TKI-resistant cancer cells and increase the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages by inhibiting autophagy to treat the drug-resistant EGFR-positive NSCLC. PMID: 32256661 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Source: OncoTargets and Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: OncoTargets and Therapy Source Type: research
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that our pneumonectomy outcomes are acceptable despite high morbidity and mortality rates. Appropriate patient selection for pneumonectomy is as important as complication management. High-comorbidity patients should undergo these procedures in experienced centers. PMID: 32254000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Chirurgica Belgica - Category: Surgery Tags: Acta Chir Belg Source Type: research
ConclusionLapatinib and trametinib could be combined in an intermittent dosing schedule in patients with manageable toxicity. Preliminary signs of anti-tumor activity in NSCLC have been observed and pharmacodynamic target engagement was demonstrated.
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Molecules that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have shown promise as therapies in a range of tumor types. This is because activated RTKs are able to act as primary driver oncogenes: through acquired mutations, they can initiate carcinogenesis and play a key role in tumor development. For example, oncogenic activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through EGFR mutation is observed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and such tumors are sensitive to EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: New Drugs Source Type: research
We examined the incidence and clinical features of VTE in these patients.MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 89 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery after induction therapy at our department between April 2009 and March 2018. The incidence of VTE, clinical features, and long-term prognosis were retrospectively examined.ResultsAmong the 89 patients, 4 (4.5%) developed VTE, and there was no significant difference in the background characteristics between patients with and without VTE. All four patients developed VTE during preoperative treatment. In the patients with VTE, anticoagulant therapy with ...
Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
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