Recent Perspectives on Gene-Microbe Interactions Determining Predisposition to Otitis Media

A comprehensive understanding about the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM), one of the most common pediatric diseases, has the potential to alleviate a substantial disease burden across the globe. Advancements in genetic and bioinformatic detection methods, as well as a growing interest in the microbiome, has enhanced the capability of researchers to investigate the interplay between host genes, host microbiome, invading bacteria, and resulting OM susceptibility. Early studies deciphering the role of genetics in OM susceptibility assessed the heritability of the phenotype in twin and triplet studies, followed by linkage studies, candidate gene approaches, and genome-wide association studies that have helped in the identification of specific loci. With the advancements in techniques, various chromosomal regions and genes such as FBXO11, TGIF1, FUT2, FNDC1, and others have been implicated in predisposition to OM, yet questions still remain as to whether these implicated genes truly play a causative role in OM and to what extent. Meanwhile, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing, microbial quantitative trait loci (mbQTL), and microbial genome-wide association studies (mGWAS) have mapped the microbiome of upper airways sites and therefore helped in enabling a more detailed study of interactions between host polymorphisms and host microbiome composition. Variants of specific genes conferring increased OM susceptibility, such as A2ML1, have also been shown to influence the microbial co...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a high prevalence of chronic otitis media (OM) and hearing impairment (HI) in Aboriginal children in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Children affected by these disorders are believed to be at increased r...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
ConclusionsReceiving the birth dose is positively associated with up-to-date status later in childhood, highlighting the importance of starting vaccination early. The association is insensitive to confounding by factors observed in National Immunization Survey-Child, but investigation of unobserved factors such as vaccine hesitancy could provide critical information to guide intervention strategy.
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
This is an interesting study; you'll have to actually look at the open access paper to see the meat of it, which is the various graphs showing the changes in relative population size of different microbe families in the gut that take place with age. A great deal of work on the gut microbiome and its role in health and aging is presently taking place in the scientific community; researchers have identified a number of beneficial metabolites that are produced by classes of microbe that decline with age. Further, the gut microbiome becomes ever more inflammatory with age. The size of these effects on health might be in the sa...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Contributors : A Daddaoua ; C Molina-SantiagoSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1The bifidogenic effect of the prebiotic inulin and its hydrolysed form (fructoligosaccharide, FOS) is well established since they promote the growth of specific beneficial (probiotic) gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria. Previous studies of the opportunistic nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 have shown that inulin and FOS reduce growth, biofilm formation, through decrease of its ability to motility and exotoxin secretion. However, the transcriptional basis for thes...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Source Type: research
Most websites that provide information about probiotics are unreliable and often tout unproven health benefits, a new study finds.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Allergy Headlines - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Gastroenterology News Source Type: news
Opisthotonos, extreme involuntary neck and back extension, is rarely seen in modern emergency departments. Vaccines have prevented the most common causes of this clinical presentation. Alternatively, otitis media is one of the most common pediatric infections and is characteristically non-invasive and harmless. In exceedingly rare cases, otitis media can develop complications and progress to invasive pneumococcal diseases including mastoiditis and meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for the majority of otitis media infections, however, since the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) a...
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this report, we compared [1] pathways identified from network analysis using genes derived from published genome-wide family-based and association studies for otitis media, sinusitis, and lung phenotypes, to [2] pathways identified using differentially expressed genes from RNA-sequence data from lower airway, sinus, and middle ear tissues, in particular cholesteatoma tissue compared to middle ear mucosa. For otitis media, a large number of genes (n = 1,806) were identified as differentially expressed between cholesteatoma and middle ear mucosa, which in turn led to the identification of 68 pathways that are enriched in ...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
ConclusionsBiofilm disruption and cell viability were influenced by the species, the test agent and the duration of exposure. CTAB and SDS were more effective in biofilm disruption than Tween 80 ™. Graphical depiction of biofilm disruption- and viability-outcomes provides an alternative means of simultaneously visualising and analysing relative efficacy in different domains.Clinical relevanceSurfactants were not as effective at biofilm disruption as NaOCl but may be added to other non-disruptive antibacterial agents to enhance this property.
Source: Clinical Oral Investigations - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
Spinal Cord, Published online: 17 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41393-020-0420-zEffect of probiotics on multi-resistant organism colonisation in persons with spinal cord injury: secondary outcome of ProSCIUTTU, a randomised placebo-controlled trial
Source: Spinal Cord - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we revealed that probiotics alleviate cognitive dysfunction associated with neuroinflammation in cardiac surgery. Rats were administered a probiotic or placebo once a day by gavage for 2 weeks until the day of surgery. Cardiac surgery was induced by ischemia/reperfusion of the left coronary artery. Key factors, such as the gut microbiome, the gut barrier and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), were systematically investigated to determine whether changes in the gut microbiome lead to neuroinflammation. We used 16S rDNA sequencing to confirm that cardiac surgery induced intestinal flora dysbiosis by altering the n...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
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