HIV-1 Subtypes and Primary Antiretroviral Resistance Mutations in Antiretroviral Therapy Naive HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Turkey.

In this study, we determined the subtype distribution and the primary drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains isolated from antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients in Turkey. The study included 117 newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive Turkish patients. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) were identified by phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed according to the 2009 World Health Organization list of surveillance drug-resistant mutations. Subtype CRFs (CRF 02_AG, CRF 01_AE, CRF 12_BF and CRF 03_AB; 47%, 55/117) and B (33.3%, 39/117) were identified as the most common occurring HIV-1 subtypes in Turkey. The patients had primary antiretroviral resistance mutations to nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) (M41L, T215C, T215D, and K219Q), non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs; K103N), and protease inhibitors (PIs; I47V, G73S). The prevalence of overall primary antiretroviral resistance was 7.6% (9/117) in HIV-1 patients from Turkey and drug-resistant rate for NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PIs were 4.2% (5/117), 1.7% (2/117), and 1.7% (2/117), respectively. In this study, various CRFs of HIV-1 were determined, for the first time, in Turkey. The prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug-resistant mutations in ART-naive patients suggested that resistance testing should be incorporated as an integral part of HIV management, and the choice of a first-line therapy regime should be guided by the results of genotypi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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