Fondness for sugars of enteric viruses confronts them with human glycans genetic diversity

AbstractTogether, norovirus and rotavirus are responsible for the majority of gastroenteritis cases worldwide, leading to a large number of deaths of children in low-income countries. Both attach to glycans of the histo-blood group antigen type (HBGAs) widely expressed in the digestive tract of vertebrates, albeit with interspecies differences. In humans, their synthesis is performed by glycosyltransferases encoded by the highly polymorphicABO,FUT2 andFUT3 genes that are under long-term balanced selection. The combination of functional and null or weak alleles at these loci provides a diversity of glycan structures that define the ABO, Secretor and Lewis phenotypes. At the initial stage of infection norovirus and rotavirus attach to these glycans, although distinct strains of each virus present different specificities for individual glycans, hence exhibiting preferences for different human phenotypes. Absence or low expression of the recognized glycan motifs due to genetic polymorphism is associated with resistance to the disease, showing that the HBGA polymorphisms provide a population-based innate protection. Epidemiologically dominant strains of either norovirus or rotavirus display specificity for glycan motifs present in large fractions of the population, which may differ between geographical areas in accordance with the frequency of theABO,FUT2,FUT3 gene polymorphisms. Evidence for virus adaptation to these geographical differences is amounting, indicative of a host &nd...
Source: Human Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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AbstractIn acute gastroenteritis (AGE), identification of the infectious agent is important for patient management. Since symptoms do not reliably identify the agent, microbiological diagnostics are important. Conventional methods lack sensitivity and often take days. Multiplex PCR panels offer fast and sensitive alternatives. Our aim was to assess the performance of the new QIAstat Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP) detecting 24 different gastroenteric pathogens from stool in Cary-Blair transport medium (Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Norovirus GI/GII, Rotavirus A, Sapovirus,Campylobacter spp.,Clostridium difficile,Plesiomonas...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is the most common causative pathogen of health care-associated gastrointestinal infections; however, due to the overlap of clinical symptoms with those of other causes of acute gastroenteritis, the selection of the most appropriate laboratory test is difficult. From April to October 2018, 640 stool samples requested for CDI testing were examined using the mariPOC CDI and Gastro test (ArcDia), which allows the detection of C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B, norovirus genogroups GI and GII.4, rotavirus, adenovirus, and Campylobacter spp. In parall...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research
Purpose of review Gastroenteritis results in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children in low-and-middle-income settings. Rotavirus and norovirus are the leading causes of viral gastroenteritis. Although introduction of rotavirus vaccines into childhood immunization programmes has reduced disease burden, vaccine effectiveness remains low in developing countries. Norovirus is replacing rotavirus as the most common cause of diarrhea hospitalization in settings where rotavirus vaccines are highly effective. Genetically determined host factors, such as expression of histo blood group antigen...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Gagandeep Kang and Eric R. Houpt Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the BD Max enteric viral panel (Max EVP) assay for identification of viral pathogens in stool specimens from individuals with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, enteritis, or colitis. Prospective and archival stool specimens from adult and pediatric patients with diarrhea were collected in Cary-Blair medium or unpreserved containers. The results for specimens tested by the Max EVP (on the BD Max platform) were compared to those obtained by the reference method (alternate PCR assays, followed by bidirectional sequencing). Positive percent agreement (PPA) and neg...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
In conclusion, common enteric viruses may be frequently found in children with undiagnosed gastroenteritis, indicating the need to implement more sensitive diagnostic methods. Novel astroviruses circulate in the community and could be the cause of gastroenteritis among young children.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Current literature show similar risks for bacterial pathogens. Studies are limited for viral and parasitic pathogens. The evaluated risk-factors for PI-IBS varied among the included studies and the existing evidence is insufficient to identify pathogen-specific risk factors. PMID: 31112663 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
AbstractRotaviruses and noroviruses are the most important viral causes of acute gastroenteritis in children. While previous studies of acute gastroenteritis in Indonesia mainly focused on rotavirus, here, we investigated the burden and epidemiology of norovirus and rotavirus disease. Children less than five years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled in this study from January to December 2015 at three participating hospitals. Rotavirus was detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), followed by genotyping by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Norovirus genogroups were determined by TaqMan-based quantita...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The diarrhea severity reduction in children provides evidence that the rotavirus vaccination program in the northwest of Mexico has been successful, even among children infected by the rotavirus emergent strain G12, however, norovirus resulted as the leading severe gastroenteritis-causing agent in children with rotavirus vaccine. PMID: 31063865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of InGenius Gastrointestinal Viral (GV) Elite Panel, a newly developed one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay simultaneously detecting rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus, was evaluated retrospectively analyzing an archival collection of 128 stool samples of children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. The overall sensitivity and specificity for the GV assay was 100% and 96.2% for rotavirus, 96.9% and 100% for astrovirus, 100% and 100% for adenovirus, respectively. The InGenius GV assay showed a high concordance with the reference methods and was able to detect all tested gen...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
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