New Cochrane Review assesses different HPV vaccines and vaccine schedules in adolescent girls and boys
New evidence published in the Cochrane Library today provides further information on the benefits and harms of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and vaccine schedules in young women and men.HPV is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract in both women and men globally (WHO 2017). Most people who have sexual contact will be exposed to HPV at some point in their life. In most people, their own immune system will clear the HPV infection.HPV infection can sometimes persist if the immune system does not clear the virus. Persistent infection with some ‘high-risk’ strains of HPV can lead to the development of cancer. High-risk HPV strains cause almost all cancers of the cervix and anus, and some cancers of the vagina, vulva, anus, penis, and head and neck. Other ‘low risk’, HPV strains cause genital warts but do not cause cancer. Developme nt of cancer due to HPV happens gradually, over many years, through a number of pre-cancer stages, called intra-epithelial neoplasia. In the cervix (neck of the womb) these changes are called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). High-grade CIN changes have a 1 in 3 chance of developing into cer vical cancer, but many CIN lesions regress and do not develop into cancer. HPV-related cancers accounted for an estimated 4.5% of cancers worldwide in 2012 (de Martel 2017).Vaccination aims to prevent future HPV infection and the cancers caused by high-risk HPV infection. HPV vaccines are mainly targ...
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2020Source: European Journal of Surgical OncologyAuthor(s): Robert A. Nagourney, Steven Evans, Peter H. Tran, Adam J. Nagourney, Paul H. Sugarbaker
Authors: Teng M, Zhou S, Cai C, Lupien M, He HH Abstract Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancers in North American men. While androgen deprivation has remained as the cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment, resistance ensues leading to lethal disease. Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) encodes a pioneer factor that induces open chromatin conformation to allow the binding of other transcription factors. Through direct interactions with the Androgen Receptor (AR), FOXA1 helps to shape AR signaling that drives the growth and survival of normal prostate and prostate cancer cells. FOXA1 also possesse...
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2020Source: The Journal of Molecular DiagnosticsAuthor(s): Iris van ’t Erve, Marjolein J.E. Greuter, Karen Bolhuis, Daan C.L. Vessies, Alessandro Leal, Geraldine R. Vink, Daan van den Broek, Victor E. Velculescu, Cornelis J.A. Punt, Gerrit A. Meijer, Veerle M.H. Coupé, Remond J.A. Fijneman
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2020Source: Pathology - Research and PracticeAuthor(s): Nazila Fathi Maroufi, Nima Ashouri, Zohreh Mortezania, Zahra Ashoori, Vahid Vahedian, Mohammad Taher Amirzadeh-Iranaq, Amir Fattahi, Hamid Kazemzadeh, Mariano Bizzarri, Maryam Akbarzadeh, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Yousef Faridvand, Mohammad-Reza Rashidi, Mohammad Nouri
Publication date: September 2020Source: Human Pathology: Case Reports, Volume 21Author(s): Yuri Noda, Yuko Nakanishi, Ayaka Izui, Hiroyo Takahashi, Chiya Oshiro, Hideo Inaji, Masaru Yamasaki
Conclusion: A nisin-producing probiotic, can be used to treat 'disease-altered' biofilms and promote healthier oral biofilms, which may be useful for improving patient oral health. PMID: 32944159 [PubMed]
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2020Source: Journal of Biomedical InformaticsAuthor(s): Mohammadreza Momenzadeh, Mohammadreza Sehhati, Hossein Rabbani
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2020Source: Microbes and InfectionAuthor(s): Nina Marí G.P. de Queiroz, Fabio V. Marinho, Marcelo A. Chagas, Luciana C.C. Leite, E. Jane Homan, Mariana T.Q. de Magalhães, Sergio C. Oliveira
CONCLUSIONS: There is scope to improve electronic/digital support for postpartum women cross-nationally to promote interrelated cancer-preventative lifestyle behaviours. Abbreviations CDC: Center for Disease Control, US; PA: Physical activity; SES: Socioeconomic status; SVI: Social Vulnerability Index; UK: UK; US: USA; WIC: Women infants and children office. PMID: 32945725 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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