New Cochrane Review assesses different HPV vaccines and vaccine schedules in adolescent girls and boys

New evidence published in the Cochrane Library today provides further information on the benefits and harms of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and vaccine schedules in young women and men.HPV is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract in both women and men globally (WHO 2017). Most people who have sexual contact will be exposed to HPV at some point in their life. In most people, their own immune system will clear the HPV infection.HPV infection can sometimes persist if the immune system does not clear the virus. Persistent infection with some ‘high-risk’ strains of HPV can lead to the development of cancer. High-risk HPV strains cause almost all cancers of the cervix and anus, and some cancers of the vagina, vulva, anus, penis, and head and neck. Other ‘low risk’, HPV strains cause genital warts but do not cause cancer. Developme nt of cancer due to HPV happens gradually, over many years, through a number of pre-cancer stages, called intra-epithelial neoplasia. In the cervix (neck of the womb) these changes are called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). High-grade CIN changes have a 1 in 3 chance of developing into cer vical cancer, but many CIN lesions regress and do not develop into cancer. HPV-related cancers accounted for an estimated 4.5% of cancers worldwide in 2012 (de Martel 2017).Vaccination aims to prevent future HPV infection and the cancers caused by high-risk HPV infection. HPV vaccines are mainly targ...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news

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Authors: PMID: 31977403 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The American Journal of Nursing - Category: Nursing Tags: Am J Nurs Source Type: research
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Source: Global Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionWe present the first risk score model to predict IGBC. The model estimates the expected risk for the individual patient and may help to optimize treatment strategies.
Source: The American Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Arthroscopy TechniquesAuthor(s): Jeong Woo Kim, Dae Jin NamAbstractThe treatment of massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears remains a challenge for shoulder surgeons. When treating patients with chronic rotator cuff tears, especially those with severe fatty degeneration, severe tendon retraction, or muscle atrophy, the risk of re-tear and persistent severe pain persists. Therefore, surgeons can choose from numerous options. Superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) was introduced as a technique to maintain the stability of the upper shoulder and stabilize the muscle...
Source: Arthroscopy Techniques - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Sports Sciences - Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical RheumatologyAuthor(s): Ayşe A. KüçükdeveciAbstractThe goals in the management of established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are to control pain and disease activity, prevent further joint damage, and enhance functioning and quality of life. Despite the fact that aggressive and the early use of biological and nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs have been associated with substantial gains in clinical, radiological, and disability outcomes, a considerable proportion of patients still report significant p...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang J, Si J, Gan L, Guo M, Yan J, Chen Y, Wang F, Xie Y, Wang Y, Zhang H Abstract Cervical cancer is the second most common malignant tumour threatening women's health. In recent years, heavy-ion beam therapy is becoming a newly emerging therapeutic mean of cancer; however, radio-resistance and radiation-induced damage constitute the main obstacles for curative treatment of cervical cancer. Therefore, to identify the radiosensitizers is essential. Here, we investigated the effects of Wnt signalling pathway on the response of 12C6+ radiation in HeLa cells. XAV939, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling pathway, w...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRIAuthor(s): Supreeta Arya, Saugata Sen, Reena Engineer, Avanish Saklani, Tarun PandeyAbstractHigh-resolution phased array external MRI is the first investigation of choice in rectal cancer for local staging, both in the primary and restaging situations. Use of MRI helps differentiate between those with good prognosis, which can be offered upfront surgery and the poor prognostic cases where treatment intensification is needed. MRI identified poor prognostic factors are threatened or involved mesorectal fascia, T3 tumors with> 5mm e...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Pathology - Research and PracticeAuthor(s): Xiaoyu Gao, Suhua Zhong, Yan Tong, Yushan Liang, Guofei Feng, Xiaoying Zhou, Zhe Zhang, Guangwu HuangAbstractCollagen (COL) genes participate in tumor extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions and focal adhesion pathways, which play a crucial role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The prognostic value of COL genes has been shown for several malignancies. In the present study, we analyzed multiple microarray datasets using the Oncomine database to identify alterations of COL genes in gastric cancer (GC). Gene express...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: PharmaNutritionAuthor(s): F. Tomazini, A.C. Santos-Mariano, V.A. Andrade-Souza, V.C. Sebben, C.A. De Maria, D.B. Coelho, R. Bertuzzi, M.D. Silva-Cavalcante, A.E. Lima-SilvaAbstractAcetaminophen has been combined with caffeine for therapeutic purpose, but the effect of co-ingestion of acetaminophen and caffeine on exercise performance has not been investigated. To determine the effect of isolated and combined ingestion of caffeine and acetaminophen on performance during a 4-km cycling time-trial (4 T T). Eleven men, completed a 4 T T one h...
Source: PharmaNutrition - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
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