Nematode-Associated Bacteria: Production of Antimicrobial Agent as a Presumptive Nominee for Curing Endodontic Infections Caused by Enterococcus faecalis

Xenorhabdus and/or Photorhabdus bacteria produce antibacterial metabolites to protect insect cadavers against food competitors allowing them to survive in nature with their nematode host. The effects of culture supernatant produced by Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp. were investigated against the multidrug-resistant dental root canal pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy of seven different cell-free supernatants of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus species against E. faecalis was assessed with overlay bioassay and serial dilution techniques. Additionally, time-dependent inactivation of supernatant was evaluated. Among the seven different bacterial species, X. cabanillasii produced the strongest antibacterial effects. Loss of bioactivity in a phosphopantetheinyl transferase-deficient mutant of X. cabanillasii indicated that this activity is likely based on non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) or polyketide synthases (PKSs). Subsequent in silico analysis revealed multiple possible biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in the genome of X. cabanillasii including a BGC homologous to that of zeamine/fabclavine biosynthesis. Fabclavines are NRPS-derived hexapeptides, which are connected by PKS-derived malonate units to an unusual polyamine, also PKS-derived. Due to the known broad-spectrum bioactivity of the fabclavines, we generated a promoter exchange mutant in front of the fabclavine-like BGC. This leads to over-expression by induction or a knock-out by non-induction which re...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Escolà-Vergé L, Los-Arcos I, Almirante B Abstract One of the current priorities of the World Health Organization is multidrug-resistant bacteria, because they are a global problem due to their rapid spread and the difficulty of their treatment. In addition, they are associated with high morbidity, mortality and high economic costs. There are multidrug-resistant bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems, enterobacteria producing carbapenemases, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin and/or with ...
Source: Medicina Clinica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Med Clin (Barc) Source Type: research
Abstract The search for new, powerful antimicrobials is essential to respond to the current worldwide spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Sponge-associated bacteria have great potential for production of antimicrobials against resistant and multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria, but only few species of the Class Homoscleromorpha have been screened for these activities so far. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify sponge-associated bacteria active against antibiotic-resistant pathogens from sponges of classes Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae. By employin...
Source: Current Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research
(±)-Preisomide: A new alkaloid featuring a rare naturally occurring tetrahydro-2H-1,2-oxazin skeleton from an endophytic fungus Preussia isomera by using OSMAC strategy. Fitoterapia. 2020 Jan 09;:104475 Authors: Chen HL, Zhao WT, Liu QP, Chen HY, Zhao W, Yang DF, Yang XL Abstract A new alkaloid, named (±)-preisomide (1), together with five known polyketides (2-6), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Preussia isomera in Panax notoginseng by using one strain-many compounds (OSMAC) strategy. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic experiments and comparison with lite...
Source: Fitoterapia - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Fitoterapia Source Type: research
Abstract The development of drug-resistant bacteria and the necessity for unique antimicrobial agents, directed to the search of new habitats to screen the production of anti-infective substances. Culture-dependent studies of heterotrophic bacteria from the intertidal macroalgae thriving along the Southern coast of India resulted in the isolation of 148 strains, which were assayed for antibacterial activities against wide spectrum of pathogens including drug-resistant pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Two of the most active strains w...
Source: Archives of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Arch Microbiol Source Type: research
ConclusionCommunity intestinal carriage of HLSR enterococci was high; however, carriage of HLGR and AR enterococci was low.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Bacteria have developed several evolutionary strategies to protect their cell membranes (CMs) from the attack of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the innate immune system, including remodeling of phospholipid content and localization. Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, an opportunistic human pathogen, evolves resistance to the lipopeptide daptomycin and AMPs by...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Abstract The misuse/abuse of antibiotics in intensive animal rearing and communities led to the emergence of resistant isolates such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs) worldwide. This has become a major source of concern for the public health sector. The aim of this study was to report the antibiotic resistance profiles and to highlight the presence of virulence genes in VREs isolated from feedlots cattle of the North-West Province of South Africa. 384 faecal samples, 24 drinking troughs water, and 24 soil samples were collected aseptically from 6 registered feedlots. Biochemical and molecular methods were...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract The threat of diminished antibiotic discovery has global healthcare in crisis. In the United States, it is estimated each year that over 2 million bacterial infections are resistant to first-line antibiotic treatments and cost in excess of 20 billion dollars. Many of these cases result from infection with the ESKAPE pathogens ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter sp.), which are multidrug-resistant bacteria that often cause community- and hospital-acquired infections in both healthy and immunocompromised pati...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Authors: Giannakopoulos X, Sakkas H, Ragos V, Tsiambas E, Bozidis P, M Evangelou A, Papadopoulou C, Petrogiannopoulos L, Sofikitis N Abstract Infections in immunocompromised-neoplastic patients represent a severe complication. Among bacteria, Enterococcus species constitute a common causative pathogen of urinary tract infections (UTIs), especially among hospitalized patients with or without urinary tract carcinoma, related commonly to urinary tract abnormalities, urinary catheters or prolonged antibiotic treatment. Although enterococci have been considered more commonly as colonization bacteria in the intestine tha...
Source: Journal of B.U.ON. - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J BUON Source Type: research
In this study, we report the synthesis and antimicrobial activity of a novel sulfamethoxazole–gallic acid conjugate compound (Hybrid 1). Hybrid 1 not only showed much stronger activity than sulfamethoxazole towards Streptococcus uberis 19436, Enterococcus faecium 700221, and Enterococcus faecalis 29212, which were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), but also exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against two E. faecalis clinical isolates, one of which was multidrug-resistant. Further studies are warranted to establish the in vivo antimicrobial activity for Hybrid 1 and develop more potent sulf...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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