An overview of non-invasive imaging modalities for diagnosis of solid and cystic renal lesions

AbstractRenal imaging is an essential investigative tool and preliminary task for determining a suitable sanative option for the treatment of kidney cancer. In recent decades, with the increasing usage of abdominal imaging, there is an upsurge in the number of adrenal incidentalomas. Among these accidentally revealed lesions, most of them are complex that warrant immediate aggressive treatment planning due to their malignant potential. The guidelines given by the American Urological Association (AUA), American College of Radiology (ACR), and European Association of Urology (EAU) vary concerning the use of ideal preliminary imaging modality to investigate the patients with suspected flank pain, hematuria, or palpable mass in the abdomen. Initially, an effort has been made to discriminate cystic and solid renal lesions which are helpful in separating benign and malignant nature as different imaging patterns are observed on distinct imaging modalities for solid and cystic renal lesions. Various attempts have been made to improve the accuracy of cancer diagnosis by employing different imaging modalities. The primary aim of this article is to study the capabilities of different imaging techniques for detecting and differentiating solid and cystic lesions to facilitate treatment planning based on computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Further, the advantages, disad...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

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Abstract The last report of the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that approximately four million people experience bone pain due to malignant diseases. Among them, metastatic bone pain is one of the most important sources of complaint. The estimated median survival in the presence of bone metastases ranks from 10 to 12 weeks. Bone represents a potential target of distant metastases for the majority of malignant tumours. However, the exact incidence of bone metastases is unknown. Bone metastases have an important socio-economic impact, and due to the enhancement of the overall survivorship, their inciden...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
own Bone metastasis is a major cause of morbidity within solid tumours of the breast, prostate, lung and kidney. Metastasis to the skeleton is associated with a wide range of complications including bone fractures, spinal cord compression, hypercalcaemia and increased bone pain. Improved treatments for bone metastasis, such as the use of anti-bone resorptive bisphosphonate agents, within post-menopausal women have improved disease-free survival; however, these treatments are not without side effects. There is thus a need for biomarkers, which will predict the risk of developing the spread to bone within these cancers. ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdvances in preservation and transplantation techniques have made renal autotransplantation (RA) a modality that can be utilized in complex renovascular diseases (renal artery aneurysms), high ureteric injuries, chronic kidney pain, as well as conventionally unresectable renal tumours. In the current review, we present the Oxford experience, the only UK commissioned centre to perform RA for complex renal cell cancers, and review the published RA experience from other UK centres.Recent FindingsThe evidence and literature generated from the RA experience in the UK are largely limited to case reports....
Source: Current Urology Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
We reported a 56-year-old man who presented with petechiae and ecchymoses. Laboratory studies showed the platelet count of 2 × 109/L and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed tumors in the right renal. There were purpura on the legs and cough without abdominal pain and melena at this time. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was diagnosed according to the clinical symptoms and laboratory test. The patient received radical nephrectomy for renal carcinoma, and his idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was cured after the surgery. Pathological biopsy confirmed it was renal clear cell carcinoma....
Source: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeSorafenib is a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) used for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and radioactive iodine resistant thyroid carcinoma. Neoplastic diseases are the cause of pain, which may occur regardless of the stage of the disease. Paracetamol is a non-opioid analgesic used alone or in combination with opioids for the treatment of cancer pain. Numerous studies have pointed out changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of TKIs when co-administered with paracetamol. The aim of the study was to assess drug –drug interactions (DDIs) between sor...
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Past religiosity/spirituality (R/S) research has mainly relied on self-report instruments which may result in self-presentation and defensive biases.
Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsFirst, an early detection of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation is essential, although disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer presents as a chronic or even subclinical process with unique thrombocytopenia. Second, making a decision of systemic chemotherapy without delay at the time of disseminated intravascular coagulation diagnosis is the key to successful cancer-related disseminated intravascular coagulation treatment.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
This article from 1998 is remarkable due to its simplicity but also its clinical impact.1 In just over 2 pages the authors highlight a major change in the field of kidney cancer, as they reported on 131 patients managed with nephrectomy at Yale between 1989 and 1992. The main finding pertains to a shift to incidental or serendipitous discovery, which was found in the majority of cases (61%) in their series, rather than symptomatic presentation, which was the norm in the decades prior. Only one patient presented with the “too late triad” of hematuria, flank pain, and abdominal mass, and only one patient presente...
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsMid-term results show that CT-guided RFA with multitined expandable electrodes externally cooled with saline solution is an effective and safe treatment in patients with RCC-staged T1aN0M0. Data reported in our study are in line with data reported in the literature from patients treated with other devices.
Source: La Radiologia Medica - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe single-port approach has advantages as easier surgical planning and transition for combined and multi-quadrants surgeries: faster recovery, minimal postoperative pain and need for opioids, and excellent cosmetic outcome. We suggest that combined procedures should be performed only in high volume institutions by surgeons with vast experience in robotic surgery in selected patients.ResumenIntroducciónPresentar el primer caso de cirugía multicuadrante concomitante —prostatectomía radical robótica y nefrectomía parcial robótica izquierda— realizadas con t&eac...
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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