HBV Genome and Life Cycle.

HBV Genome and Life Cycle. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1179:17-37 Authors: Wang J, Huang H, Liu Y, Chen R, Yan Y, Shi S, Xi J, Zou J, Yu G, Feng X, Lu F Abstract Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains to be a serious threat to public health and is associated with many liver diseases including chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) and pegylated interferon-α (Peg-IFNα) have been confirmed to be efficient in inhibiting HBV replication, it is difficult to eradicate HBV and achieve the clinical cure of CHB. Therefore, long-term therapy has been recommended to CHB treatment under the current antiviral therapy. In this context, the new antiviral therapy targeting one or multiple critical steps of viral life cycle may be an alternative approach in future. In the last decade, the functional receptor [sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP)] of HBV entry into hepatocytes has been discovered, and the immature nucleocapsids containing the non- or partially reverse-transcribed pregenomic RNA, the nucleocapsids containing double-strand linear DNA (dslDNA), and the empty particles devoid of any HBV nucleic acid have been found to be released into circulation, which have supplemented the life cycle of HBV. The understanding of HBV life cycle may offer a new instruction for searching the potential antiviral targets, and the new viral markers used to monitor the effica...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Abstract HBV is the most common etiology of both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. Despite much progress made, the currently available antiviral therapies cannot eradicate or eliminate this virus. Hence, the benefits and risks of antiviral therapy should be carefully evaluated on an individual basis and within the context of the clinical situation. The ultimate goals of treatment are to decrease the mortality from liver disease. The benefits of antiviral therapy come from prevention of progression of liver disease. Understanding the natural history of chronic HBV infection is a key step in the...
Source: Korean J Gastroenter... - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Korean J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Authors: Tao Y, Wu D, Zhou L, Chen E, Liu C, Tang X, Jiang W, Han N, Li H, Tang H Abstract Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains the leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality across the world. If left untreated, approximately one-third of these patients will progress to severe end-stage liver diseases including liver failure, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). High level of serum HBV DNA is strongly associated with the development of liver failure, cirrhosis, and HCC. Therefore, antiviral therapy is crucial for the clinical management of CHB. Current antiviral drugs including nucleoside/nucleot...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is the common chronic viral infection worldwide, affecting approximately 350million people. [1] Because persistently high hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is associated with an increased risk of compensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), [2,3] replication-suppressing antiviral therapy is administered to CHB patients to prevent liver disease progression.[4] As a matter of fact, oral antiviral agents, particularly entecavir (ETV), reduce the risk of long-term complications such as liver compensated cirrhosis and HCC, ultimately improving survivals compared to controls.
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is the most common chronic viral infection worldwide, affecting approximately 350 million people.1 Because persistently high hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is associated with an increased risk of compensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),2,3 replication-suppressing antiviral therapy is administered to patients with CHB to prevent liver-disease progression.4 As a matter of fact, oral antiviral agents, particularly entecavir (ETV), reduce the risk of long-term complications such as cirrhosis and HCC, ultimately improving survival compared to controls.
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Authors: Béguelin C, Fall F, Seydi M, Wandeler G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Although the tools to curb the epidemic are known, only a minority of HBV-infected persons are currently diagnosed and treated. Areas covered: We discuss HBV epidemiological trends in SSA, describe important determinants of its natural history, and summarize current knowledge on the continuum of HBV care. Using the results of a systematic review of the literature, we describe the proportion of patients with liver fibrosi...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundThe relationship between the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and the long-term natural history of liver disease has not been sufficiently investigated.MethodsA total of 408 [4352 person-year (PY) units] patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) without antiviral therapy were enrolled. The study patients were divided into three groups, as follows: Group A (2666 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
AbstractAssessing liver fibrosis is important for predicting the efficacy of antiviral therapy and patient prognosis. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing liver fibrosis, despite its invasiveness and problematic diagnostic accuracy. Although noninvasive techniques to assess liver fibrosis are becoming important, reliable serum surrogate markers are not available. A glycoproteomics study aimed at identifying such markers discovered Mac 2-Binding Protein Gylcan Isomer (M2BPGi), which is a reliable marker for assessing liver fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis and other fibrotic liver diseases such as primar...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
We present a review of the current literature on antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis. Medline search was performed to identify relevant literature from 1993 through January of 2017. Expert commentary: One randomized controlled trial and a number of observational studies have shown that nucleos(t)ide analogs can decrease the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B patients with advanced fibrosis. Data from clinical trials of entecavir and tenofovir have shown that histological improvement and regression of fibrosis can be achieved in the majority of patients with c...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic infection with hepatitis B affects more than 240 million persons worldwide and is a major public health concern. Despite national and global initiatives to promote hepatitis B elimination, including newborn vaccination, catch-up vaccination in adolescents and high-risk adults, screening of the blood supply, and treatment of those in need, both new infections and a reservoir of chronic infections continue to result in morbidity and mortality. As with many chronic diseases, racial and ethnic disparities are seen in hepatitis B virus infection. The goal of this review is to synthesize the data...
Source: Current Hepatitis Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions Hepato-carcinogenesis occurred more frequently in patients with a positive HBV DNA load and relatively advanced liver disease. Therefore, it is important to administer antiviral therapy to patients with CHB before they develop HBV-related cirrhosis.
Source: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
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