Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) but not FADS1 desaturates branched chain and odd chain saturated fatty acids

Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of LipidsAuthor(s): Zhen Wang, Hui Gyu Park, Dong Hao Wang, Riki Kitano, Kumar S.D. Kothapalli, J. Thomas BrennaAbstractBranched chain fatty acids (BCFA) and linear chain/normal odd chain fatty acids (n-OCFA) are major fatty acids in human skin lipids, especially sebaceous gland (SG) wax esters. Skin lipids contain variable amounts of monounsaturated BCFA and n-OCFA, in some reports exceeding over 20% of total fatty acids. Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) codes for a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes Δ4-, Δ6- and Δ8-desaturation towards ten polyunsaturated fatty acids but only one saturate, palmitic acid, converting it to 16:1n-10; FADS2 is not active towards 14:0 or 18:0. Here we test the hypothesis that FADS2 also operates on BCFA and n-OCFA. MCF-7 cancer cells stably expressing FADS1 or FADS2 along with empty vector control cells were incubated with anteiso-15:0, iso-16:0, iso-17:0, anteiso-17:0, iso-18:0, or n-17:0. BCFA were Δ6-desaturated by FADS2 as follows: iso-16:0 → iso-6Z-16:1, iso-17:0 → iso-6Z-17:1, anteiso-17:0 → anteiso-6Z-17:1 and iso-18:0 → iso-6Z-18:1. anteiso-15:0 was not desaturated in either FADS1 or FADS2 cells. n-17:0 was converted to both n-6Z-17:1 by FADS2 Δ6-desaturation and n-9Z-17:1 by SCD Δ9-desaturation. We thus establish novel FADS2-coded enzymatic a...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Journal of ColoproctologyAuthor(s): Seyedeh Elham Norollahi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Hamidian, Zeynab Khazaee Kohpar, Rezvan Azadi, Pooya Rostami, Sogand Vahidi, Sahar Ghazanfari, Farnaz Azar Shabe, Roya Khaksar, Ali Akbar SamadaniAbstractColorectal cancer is one of the most important malignancies in the classification of gastrointestinal cancers. One of the predisposing factors at molecular level for this cancer is via WNT signaling which is associated with the vast numbers of different genes. Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether Adenomatous Polyposis ...
Source: Journal of Coloproctology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
We present a case of GCA in a patient who presented with jaw claudication and occlusal pain. A 78-year-old man visited our department with left-sided facial pain associated with mastication. He also reported spontaneous left-sided facial pain and diminished vision. Based on his age, his new-onset left-sided headache, and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, he was diagnosed with GCA with immediate initiation of prednisolone (PSL) therapy. His fever subsided the following day. A temporal artery biopsy (TAB) was performed 7 days after hospitalization and showed a false-negative result. His left-sided facial pain and headac...
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
ConclusionThe expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9 in hypopharyngeal carcinoma was significantly higher than that in pericarcinoma tissue, and it was enhanced with the increase of clinical stage. The expression level was related to lymph node metastasis and tumor pathological stage. Thus, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9 may be involved in the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma through a variety of mechanisms.ResumoIntroduçãoA função da metaloproteinase da matriz 2 e9 nas metástases e no desenvolvimento de carcinoma hipofaríngeo...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
ConclusionsThyroidectomy may only be required during total laryngectomy for selected cases of advanced transglottic tumors and tumors with subglottic extension more than 10 mm.ResumoIntroduçãoEm geral, a invasão da glândula tireoide não é uma característica do carcinoma laríngeo avançado, não sendo necessário realizar tireoidectomia em todos os casos de laringectomia total.ObjetivosAvaliar a frequência da invasão da glândula tireoide em pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular avançado de laringe submetidos à laringe...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Giovanni Grignani, Alessandra Merlini, Dario Sangiolo, Lorenzo D'Ambrosio, Ymera PignochinoAbstractWith the ever-expanding therapeutic indications and ongoing clinical trials with Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, it is of outmost importance to stop and rethink what we know and still do not know concerning one of the major revolutions in target therapies in the last decades. Indeed, many PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are able to bind multiple targets, with a plethora of potential interactions with ca...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Stefania Koutsilieri, Foteini Tzioufa, Despoina-Christina Sismanoglou, George P. PatrinosAbstractPharmacogenomics and personalized medicine interventions hold promise to optimize drug treatment modalities and hence, improve the quality of life of the patients by minimizing the occurrence of adverse drug reactions and/or maximizing drug treatment efficacy. To this end, proper guidance for accurately prescribing the correct drug at the right dose is empowered by major regulatory bodies, namely the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (F...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our data suggest that thyroid hormones influence angiogenic signaling in MSCs via integrin αvβ3 and further substantiate the anti-angiogenic activity of Tetrac in the tumor microenvironment. PMID: 31816265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 inhibitors lead to immune mediated thyroiditis, the most frequent endocrine IRAE. In most cases, management is supportive without requiring steroids or discontinuation of immunotherapy. Diffusely increased thyroid 18FDG uptake on PET scan may predict the occurrence of thyroiditis, whereas TPO antibodies may help identify its severity. Thyroiditis may be a biomarker for anti-tumor immune response, highlighting the need to further characterize its underlying mechanism. PMID: 31813343 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Although intra-operative assessment reduced the need for CTx in 21%, up to 30% of patients would still require a second operation. Altering the pre-operative criteria does not influence this outcome. Patients deemed eligible for lobectomy should be informed that despite careful pre- and intra-operative assessment, there is up to a 30% risk of requiring CTx. PMID: 31813323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: International Journal of PharmaceuticsAuthor(s): Li Cao, Qiyu Li, Zhen Tong, Yutong Xing, Keyuan Xu, Jessica Yijia Wang, Wenjing Li, Jianhua Zhao, Liqing Zhao, Zhangyong HongAbstractHuman epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an attractive target for cancer therapy, although a large fraction of tumors that express HER2 may still resist first-line therapies. Immunotoxins with antibodies that are armed with extremely potent cytotoxic toxin molecules may provide an important solution to this problem. In this work, we constructed three new anti-HER2 immunotoxins...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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