Analysis of Antibody Response to an Epitope in the Haemagglutinin Subunit 2 of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 for Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Chickens.

This study demonstrates the usefulness of the HPAI H5N1 HA2 E29 epitope as a DIVA antigen in HPAI H5N1 vaccinated and infected chickens.Research Highlight E29 (HA2 position 488-516) epitope is antigenic in chickenAntibodies to E29 are elicited following live H5N1 virus infection in chickenE29 epitope is a potential DIVA antigen for use in ELISA. PMID: 31738584 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Jiayun Yang, Zhengxiang Wang, Yingying Du, Yane Jia, Liang Wang, Shuai Xu, Qiyun ZhuAbstractDuring 2012―2015, six H5N1 avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic birds and the environment around Qinghai Lake. Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes revealed that A/chicken/Gansu/XG2/2012 (CK/GS/XG2/12) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1a, while A/environment/Qinghai/1/2013 (EN/QH/1/13), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH1/2015 (CK/QH/QH1/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH2/2015 (CK/QH/QH2/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH3/2015 (CK/QH/QH3/15), and A/goose/Qinghai/QH6/201...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed. Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are pathogens of global concern in both human and veterinary medicine (Webster et al., 1992; Stöhr, 2002; Olsen et al., 2006; Wiethoelter et al., 2015). Wild birds are well-described hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and longitudinal surveillance studies have demonstrated a plethora of low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) circulating in wild...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
The objective of this preclinical study was to assess the protective immunity induced by immunization with group 1 hemagglutinin-specific influenza virus vaccines based on chimeric hemagglutinins (cHAs) in a ferret model of influenza. The experimental designs and immunization strategies are summarized in Figure 1. Since most human adults have a primed repertoire of B cells with specificity to the HA stalk domain (19, 30), we included an influenza B virus expressing cH9/1 (B-cH9/1) to mimic pre-existing HA stalk immunity. We then compared the ability of our sequential immunization strategies to boost antibody titers against...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Rui Dong1, Lily He1, Rong Lucy He2 and Stephen S.-T. Yau1* 1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 2Department of Biological Sciences, Chicago State University, Chicago, IL, United States Classification of DNA sequences is an important issue in the bioinformatics study, yet most existing methods for phylogenetic analysis including Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) are time-consuming and computationally expensive. The alignment-free methods are popular nowadays, whereas the manual intervention in those methods usually decreases the accuracy. Also, the interactions among nucleotid...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, we characterized the pathogenicity of AB14 (H5N1) and BC15 (H7N9) and found that both strain isolates are highly lethal in mice. AB14 (H5N1) caused systemic viral infection and erratic proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in different organs. In contrast, BC15 (H7N9) replicated efficiently only in the respiratory tract, and was a potent inducer for proinflammatory cytokine genes in the lungs. Our study provides experimental evidence to complement the specific human case reports and animal models for evaluating vaccine and antiviral candidates against potential influenza pandemics.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Intranasal immunization with rH5 antigen formulated with NE01 adjuvant elicited strong, broad and balanced immune responses that effectively protect against H5N1 influenza virus infection in the ferret model. The ease of formulation of rH5-NE01 makes this novel combination a promising mucosal vaccine candidate for pandemic influenza. PMID: 30795941 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
This study showed that the candidate vaccine is safe and elicits an antigen-dose-dependent serum antibody response. In summary, we determined the optimum antigen dose in a Kazfluvac® adjuvant formulation required for induction of heightened immunogenicity and protective efficacy to mitigate H5N1 disease in experimental animals, suggesting its readiness for clinical studies in humans.
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Rift valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging mosquito borne virus and haemorrhagic fever agent, which causes abortion storms in farmed small ruminants and potentially causes miscarriages in humans. Although live-attenuated vaccines are available for animals, they can only be used in endemic areas and there are currently no commercially available vaccines for humans. Here we describe the production of chimaeric RVFV virus-like particles transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. The glycoprotein (Gn) gene was modified by removing its ectodomain (Gne...
Source: Biotechnology Journal - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biotechnol J Source Type: research
Abstract Bird to human transmission of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) poses a significant risk of triggering a flu pandemic in the human population. Therefore, vaccination of susceptible poultry during an HPAIV outbreak might be the best remedy to prevent such transmissions. To this end, suitable formulations and an effective mass vaccination method that can be translated to field settings needs to be developed. Our previous study in chickens has shown that inhalation of a non-adjuvanted dry powder influenza vaccine formulation during normal breathing results in partial protection against lethal ...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research
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