Gut microbiota and its mysteries

Premalatha Pushpanathan, Gifty Sara Mathew, Sribal Selvarajan, Krishna G Seshadri, Padma SrikanthIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2019 37(2):268-277 Gut microbiota are microorganisms that inhabit the gut; they coexist peacefully with the host, thereby contributing to the health and well-being of individuals. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes largely dominate the gut microbial flora. The intestinal flora promotes intestinal mucosal integrity, provides essential nutrients such as vitamins and enzymes, protects the body against pathogens and produces antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, C-type lectins, cathelicidins, they also play an active role in the innate and adaptive immune system. Gut microbial flora plays an active role in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, propionate and acetate. Gut microbiota also plays a significant role in the cognitive and behavioural functions of the host. A balanced gut microbiota shifts to dysbiosis, due to intake of high fat or sugar or other factors like sedentary lifestyle. The dysbiosis of the gut results in increased permeability, endotoxaemic, insulin resistant, systemic inflammation, adiposity and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, irritable bowel disorder, colorectal cancer, etc. A prudent lifestyle modification, added on with use of probiotics and prebiotic restore the normal flora of the gut, especially in patients with C...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research

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This study aimed to investigate the risk of self-harm following diagnosis of different psychiatric disorders in an Asian population, through a review of inpatient records retrieved from the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System (CDARS).MethodsFor this nested case-control study, the inpatient data of people admitted for any reason to Hong Kong public hospitals, between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2010, were extracted from CDARS. Cases were people aged 10 years or older who had been admitted to inpatient care with a first-listed record of psychiatric disorder during the study period. The seven psychiatric disord...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, the addition of PPIs to the treatment regimen of breast cancer appears to be a promising strategy to potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapy and may suppress cancer metastasis. PMID: 31955147 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharm Source Type: research
This study evaluated the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of a heliangolide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Helianthus annuus L. leaves. The heliangolide sesquiterpene lactone was isolated through a combination of solvent-solvent partitioning, column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. The antioxidant activity of the compound was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays while the antidiabetic effects were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The heliangolide derivative at the concentratio...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharm Source Type: research
Abstract A series of nine new 2,3-disubstituted 4(3H)-quinazolin-4-one derivatives was furnished starting from the 2-propyl-4(3H)-quinazo-line-4-one (2). The reinvestigation of the key starting quinazolinone 2 was performed under microwave irradiation (MW) and solvent-free conditions. Combination of MW and phase-transfer catalysis using tetrabutylammonium benzoate (TBAB) as a novel neutral ionic catalyst was used for carrying out N-alkylation and condensation reactions of compound 2 as a simple, efficient and eco-friendly technique. The structure of the synthesized compounds was elucidated using different spectral...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharm Source Type: research
This study aims to unveil the mechanisms underlying the pro-apoptotic effect of Cur-NLC on HepG2 cells. Evidence indicates that low expression of death receptors (DRs) on cancer cell membranes leads to attenuated apoptosis signaling. This study showed that Cur-NLC significantly increased total expression of DR5 protein while simultaneously upregulated cell membrane expression of DR5. Cur-NLC significantly increased caspase-8 and caspase-3 activities, accompanied by increased apoptosis. Furthermore, enhanced apoptosis was inhibited in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Therefore, Cur-NLC induced activation ...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharm Source Type: research
Abstract The incidence of mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) has been an uptrend in recent years. Our previous study showed that the sex-determining region Y-box 7 (SOX7) was low-expressed and served as a tumor suppressor in PCa cells. Here, we describe the effects of polyphyllin D (PD) on proliferation and cell cycle modifications of PCa cells, and whether SOX7 participates in this process. PC-3 cells were cultured in complete medium containing PD for 12, 24, and 48 h. MTT assay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects of PD. Cell cycle progression was analyzed using propidium iodide (PI) staining, and prote...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharm Source Type: research
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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Objective: Subcutaneous (sc) administration of long-acting insulin analogs is often employed in multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy of type 1 diabetes (T1D) to cover patient's basal insulin needs. Among these, insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) and 300 U/mL (Gla-300) are formulations indicated for once daily sc administration in MDI therapy of T1D. A few semi-mechanistic models of sc absorption of insulin glargine have been proposed in the literature, but were not quantitatively assessed on a large dataset. The aim of this paper is to propose a model of sc absorption of insulin glargine able to describe the...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
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Source: Gut Microbes - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: SkowroĊ„ska A, Sójta K, Strzelecki D Abstract Refeeding syndrome (RS) is one of the serious complications during treatment of anorexia nervosa. It includes hormonal and metabolic changes that occur during the process of refeeding in chronically malnourished patient when nutrition is introduced in an excessive and improper amount. RS manifests in water-electrolyte imbalances, including hypophosphatemia (the mostimportant diagnosticmarker), hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesaemia, fluid retention, vitamin deficiency and metabolic acidosis. It applies to either oral and parenteral supplementation. I...
Source: Psychiatria Polska - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatr Pol Source Type: research
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