Current strategy for local- to global-level molecular epidemiological characterisation of global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system pathogens

Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Saranya Vijayakumar, Rosemol Varghese, Chaitra Shankar, Jobin John Jacob, Karthick Vasudevan, Divyaa Elangovan, Veeraraghavan BalajiIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2019 37(2):147-162 The prime goal of molecular epidemiology is to identify the origin and evolution of pathogens, which can potentially influence the public health worldwide. Traditional methods provide limited information which is not sufficient for outbreak investigation and studying transmission dynamics. The recent advancement of next-generation sequencing had a major impact on molecular epidemiological studies. Currently, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has become the gold standard typing method, especially for clinically significant pathogens. Here, we aimed to describe the application of appropriate molecular typing methods for global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system pathogens based on the level of discrimination and epidemiological settings. This shows that sequence-based methods such as multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) are widely used due to cost-effectiveness and database accessibility. However, WGS is the only method of choice for studying Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. WGS is shown to have higher discrimination than other methods in typing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Salmonella spp. due to its changing accessory genome content. For Gram positives such as Stre...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusion: The 2017 dengue outbreak occurred in a larger scale than in the previous years in terms of time, location, and number of patients. More elderly patients were infected by dengue in this outbreak, and this may contribute to the mortality rate. Clinical manifestations of dengue patients in Southern Vietnam are more typical than the northern, but the rate of severe dengue is not different. The mortality risk and underlying conditions associated with dengue-infected elderly patients are worthy of further investigations in the future. PMID: 31815129 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Enzyme and Microbial TechnologyAuthor(s): Liuyan Gu, Haibo Yuan, Xueqin Lv, Guangsheng Li, Rigang Cong, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Long LiuAbstract5-Methylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (MPCA) is an important pharmaceutical intermediate and is used in the production of hypoglycemic agents and lipid-lowering drugs. This work aimed to develop a whole-cell biocatalytic process for the efficient synthesis of MPCA from 2, 5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP). Firstly, a whole-cell biocatalyst Escherichia coli strain was constructed by plasmid-based expression of xylene monooxygenase (XMO...
Source: Enzyme and Microbial Technology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering AspectsAuthor(s): Qiang Li, Xiaotai Zhang, Hui Yu, Huifeng Zhang, Jihua WangAbstractA Schiff-base and hydrophilic functionalized polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membrane has been fabricated by ordinally grafting ethylenediamine, glutaraldehyde, and 3-amino-1-propanol on the freshly fabricated polyamide surface under a facile mild grafting strategy. The modification process has no obvious influence on membrane thickness and morphology. Compared to the pristine polyamide membrane, the modified membrane becomes mo...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
This outbreak is caused by a different strain of E. coli than the other current outbreak linked to romaine lettuce grown in the Salinas, California region, which has over 100 reported cases of infection.
Source: CNN.com - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
The CDC says eight people have contracted E. coli in three states from a pre-packaged salad kit while the FDA announced a recall of a pre-cut fruit salad mix that sickened 33 with salmonella.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative coccobacillus, has become a prevalent nosocomial health threat affecting the majority of hospitals both in the U.S. and around the globe. Microbial cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) has previously been correlated with virulence, uptake by immune cells, and attachment to epithelial cells. A mutant strain of A. baumannii (ΔtrxA) lacking the redox protein thioredoxin A was found to be more hydrophobic than its wild type (WT) and complemented counterparts, as measured by both Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon (MATH) and salt aggregation. The hydrophobicity of the mutant could be a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens exist as planktonic cells only at limited times during their life cycle. In response to environmental signals such as temperature, pH, osmolality, and nutrient availability, pathogenic bacteria can adopt varied cellular fates, which involves the activation of virulence gene programs and/or the induction of a sessile lifestyle to form multicellular surface-attached communities. In Salmonella, SsrB is the response regulator which governs the lifestyle switch from an intracellular virulent state to form dormant biofilms in chronically infected hosts. Using the Salmonella lifestyle swi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that expresses F4ac fimbriae is the major pathogenic microorganism responsible for bacterial diarrhea in neonatal piglets. The susceptibility of piglets to ETEC F4ac is determined by a specific receptor on the small intestinal epithelium surface. We performed an iTRAQ-labeled quantitative proteome analysis using a case-control design in which susceptible and resistant full-sib piglets were compared for the protein expression levels. Two thousand two hundred forty-nine proteins were identified, of which 245 were differentially expressed (fold change> 1.5, FDR-adjusted P
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Studies focused on development of an attenuated vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Ptb) in cattle and other species, revealed that deletion of relA, a global gene regulator, abrogates the ability of Map to establish a persistent infection. In the absence of relA, cattle develop CD8 cytotoxic T cells (CTL) with the ability to kill intracellular bacteria. Analysis of the recall response to a relA mutant, Map/ΔrelA, with cells from a vaccinated steer demonstrated that a 35-kDa membrane peptide (MMP) is one of the targets of the response. This obser...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionThese data suggest that a combined 2-h infusion with a higher dosage of meropenem, including a loading dose, may be successful to achieve effective PK parameters.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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