Salt has contrasting effects on the digestive processing of dilute nectar by two Neotropical nectarivorous bats

Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular &Integrative PhysiologyAuthor(s): L. Gerardo Herrera M, Beatriz F. Esnard H, L. Margarita Sánchez, Carlos A. Mancina GAbstractNectarivorous vertebrates might include sugar-dilute nectar in their diet and they are expected to undergo compensatory feeding. However, physiological constraints might limit the intake of sugar-dilute nectar, affecting energy budgets. Among other physiological processes, the limiting role of osmoregulation is supported by enhanced intake rate of dilute sugar solutions by avian nectarivores when salt is added. We tested if the Greater Antillean Long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani) and the Brown flower bat (Erophylla sezekorni) compensated energy intake when fed dilute-sugar solutions (2.5 and 5% sucrose), and if salt content (11, 20 and 40 mM NaCl l−1) modulated the intake rate of these solutions. Both species were unable to compensate intake of solutions with varying sugar densities, and energy intake on the 2.5 and 5% diets was lower than on the most concentrated diets (10, 20 and 30% sucrose). Both species responded differently to the addition of salt. Salt addition did not affect the intake of 2.5% sugar solutions by the Greater Antillean Long-tongued bat, and it decreased the intake of 5% sugar solutions. In contrast, the Brown flower bat increased the intake of 2.5 and 5% sugar solutions when salt was added. I...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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Public Health England has said that the risk to public health is very lowCases ofbird flu have been confirmed at a chicken farm in Suffolk, the government has said.All 27,000 birds at the commercial farm will be culled after a number were found to have the H5 type of avian flu, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said on Tuesday.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Agriculture Bird flu Health Science Society UK news Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Qingtao Liu, Jing Yang, Xinmei Huang, Yuzhuo Liu, Kaikai Han, Dongmin Zhao, Lijiao Zhang, Yin LiAbstractAvian influenza subtype H9N2 infection is a mild but highly contagious disease that is associated with a decrease in the efficacy of vaccine interventions, and an increase in susceptibility to secondary infections in poultry. However, the immune evasion mechanism of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in chickens is poorly understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells of major importance, involved in innate ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
(Max Delbr ü ck Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association) Normally, bird flu viruses do not spread easily from person to person. But if this does happen, it could trigger a pandemic. Researchers from the MDC and RKI have now explained in the journal Nature Communications what makes the leap from animals to humans less likely.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) are important contagious suppressive factors of chicken immunity and growth performance, resulted in enormous economic loss. Although virus eradication programs are applied in bre...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Amber M. Frye, Thomas M. Hart, Danielle M. Tufts, Sanjay Ram, Maria A. Diuk-Wasser, Peter Kraiczy, Anna M. Blom, Yi-Pin LinAbstractComplement is a key first line innate host defense system in the blood of vertebrates. Upon activation, this powerful defense mechanism can elicit inflammatory responses, lyse non-self-cells, or mark them for opsonophagocytic removal. Blood-feeding arthropods thus require the ability to block host complement activation in the bloodmeal to prevent undesired cell or tissue damage during feeding. The ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Authors: Rebmann T, Charney RL, Loux TM, Turner JA, Abbyad YS, Silvestros M Abstract Objective Identify determinants of emergency medical service (EMS) personnel's willingness to work during an influenza pandemic.Background Little is known about the willingness of EMS personnel to work during a future influenza pandemic or the extent to which they are receiving pandemic training.Methods EMS personnel were surveyed in July 2018 - Feb 2019 using a cross-sectional approach; the survey was available both electronically and on paper. Participants were provided a pandemic scenario and asked about their willingness to res...
Source: Prehospital Emergency Care - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Prehosp Emerg Care Source Type: research
Abstract There has been much discussion over whether basal birds (e.g. Archaeopteryx and Confuciusornis) exhibited active flight. A recent study of barb angles has suggested they likely could not but instead may have exhibited a gliding phase. Pennaceous primary flight feathers were proposed to show significant shifts in barb angle values of relevance to the inference of flight in these extinct taxa. However, evolutionary trends in the evolution of these barb angle traits in extant volant taxa were not analysed in a phylogenetic frame. Neither the ancestral crown avian condition nor the condition in outgroup dinos...
Source: Biology Letters - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Biol Lett Source Type: research
The protective roles of endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic nucleic acid sensors are well elucidated, but the pathogenic host factors during viral infections remain unclear. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-coupled C-type lectins (CLECs) CLEC2 and CLEC5A are highly expressed on platelets and myeloid cells, respectively. CLEC2 has been shown to recognize snake venom aggretin and the endogenous ligand podoplanin and acts as a critical regulator in the development and immunothrombosis. Although CLEC2 has been reported to interact with type I immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), its role in viral infections is still uncl...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
benstroth Parrot bornaviruses (PaBVs) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a chronic and often fatal neurologic disorder in Psittaciformes. The disease is widely distributed in private parrot collections and threatens breeding populations of endangered species. Thus, immunoprophylaxis strategies are urgently needed. In previous studies we demonstrated a prime-boost vaccination regime using modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) constructs expressing the nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein of PaBV-4 (MVA/PaBV-4 and NDV/PaBV-4, respectively) to protect cockatie...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, three H9N2 viruses isolated from chickens in different layer farms were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these H9N2 viruses were all multiple genotype reassortants, with genes originating from Y280-like, F/98-like, and G1-like viruses. Animal studies indicated that the AV1535 and AV1548 viruses replicated efficiently in the lungs, tracheas, spleens, kidneys, and brains of chickens; the viruses shed for at least 11 days post-inoculation (DPI) and were transmitted efficiently among contact chickens. The AV1534 virus replicated poorly in chickens, shed for 7 DPI, and were not transmitted efficien...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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