The gut microbiome in neurological disorders

Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: The Lancet NeurologyAuthor(s): John F Cryan, Kenneth J O'Riordan, Kiran Sandhu, Veronica Peterson, Timothy G DinanSummaryResearch into the role of the gut microbiome in modulating brain function has rapidly increased over the past 10 years, albeit chiefly in animal models. Increasing clinical and preclinical evidence implicates the microbiome as a possible key susceptibility factor for neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. Cross-sectional clinical studies are bolstering the concept of altered microbial composition contributing to the pathophysiology of such diseases. However, the field is nascent, and interpretation of such data is often difficult given that the composition of the microbiome is influenced by various factors such as diet and exercise. Longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials in humans are needed to find out if targeting the microbiome can yield novel therapeutic strategies. Systems biology approaches will also be important in integrating such data with genomic and metabolomic datasets from clinical cohorts with neurological disease to help guide individual treatment selection.
Source: The Lancet Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation MedicineAuthor(s): I Laffont, J Froger, C Jourdan, K Bakhti, LEH Van Dokkum, A Gouaich, HY Bonnin, P Armingaud, A Jaussent, MC Picot, E Le Bars, A Dupeyron, C Arquizan, A Gelis, D MottetAbstractBackground. Few rehabilitation methods have proven their efficacy in increasing sensori-motor recovery and/or function of the upper limb (UL) after stroke. Video games (VGs) are promising tools in this indication.Objective. To compare UL rehabilitation by using VGs and conventional rehabilitation (CR) in patients with sub-acute stroke.Des...
Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine - Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research
This article seeks to understand how PSH for youth impacts a basic health need—food security— across multiple levels of the social-ecological environment. In January of 2014, San Francisco, California opened the city's first municipally-funded PSH building exclusively designated for transition-aged youth (ages 18–24). We conducted 20 months of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 39 youth from April 2014 to December 2015. Ethnographic fieldnotes and interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. We present our social-ecological assessment regarding food insecurity for formerly ...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
This study aimed to determine what proportion of children’s dietary intake occurs within the ECE setting and whether diet quality is higher at ECE centers and, consequently, on weekdays than weekends.DesignThis cross-sectional analysis of a larger cluster randomized controlled trial used multiple 24-hour dietary intakes measured through a combination of the Dietary Observation in Child Care protocol and parent-reported food diaries.Participants/settingParticipants (N=840) included children aged 3 to 4 years enrolled in ECE centers in central North Carolina for whom 24-hour dietary intake was captured via observation ...
Source: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Journal of Functional FoodsAuthor(s): Rosa Anna Milella, Marica Gasparro, Fiammetta Alagna, Maria Francesca Cardone, Silvia Rotunno, Concetta Tiziana Ammollo, Fabrizio Semeraro, Apollonia Tullo, Flaviana Marzano, Domenico Catalano, Donato Antonacci, Mario Colucci, Domenica D'EliaAbstractUsing a transcriptomic approach, we performed a pilot study in healthy subjects to evaluate the changes in gene expression induced by grape consumption. Blood from twenty subjects was collected at baseline (T0), after 21 days of grape-rich diet (T1) and after one-month washout (...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
AbstractCurcumin is widely consumed in Asia either as turmeric directly or as one of the culinary ingredients in food recipes. The benefits of curcumin in different organ systems have been reported extensively in several neurological diseases and cancer. Curcumin has got its global recognition because of its strong antioxidant, anti ‐inflammatory, anti‐cancer, and antimicrobial activities. Additionally, it is used in diabetes and arthritis as well as in hepatic, renal, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, there is growing attention on usage of curcumin to prevent or delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. This...
Source: BioFactors - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
Albert Sanfeliu1, Karsten Hokamp2, Michael Gill1 and Daniela Tropea1,3*1Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, St James Hospital, Dublin, Ireland2Department of Genetics, School of Genetics and Microbiology, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, IrelandRett syndrome is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder with a wide symptomatology including impaired communication and movement, cardio-respiratory abno...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This article does not include any meta-analysis and aims simply at providing a comprehensive overview of the raw data reported in this field to date, as an aid to researchers.
Source: Neurophysiologie Clinique - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
A, Bartrés-Faz D Abstract Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was proposed as a neurophysiological tool almost three decades ago. It now encompasses a very wide range of applications including clinical research and the treatment of psychiatric, neurologic and medical conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, addictions, post-traumatic stress disorders, pain, migraine, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, autism, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. By inducing electrical brain responses through the administration of magnetic pulses, TMS is in a unique position to painlessly modulate cortical regions ...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Epilepsy is a common disease that affects 1 in 26 individuals in their lifetime. According to a National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke assessment, with 2 million affected individuals, epilepsy ranks only fourth to migraine, stroke, and Alzheimer disease in the prevalence of neurological disorders. Epilepsy affects more people than autism, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson disease combined. Approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of all pregnancies are among women with epilepsy (WWE). The risks during pregnancy in WWE have been uncertain.
Source: JAMA Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The invention pertains to derivatives of docosahexaenoylethanolamide (synaptamide or DEA) and their use in inducing neurogenesis, neurite growth, and/or synaptogenesis. As such, these DEA derivatives can be used as therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, autism, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The DEA derivatives of the invention have increased potency and hydrolysis resistance as compared to native DEA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Alzheimer's | Autism | Biology | Brain | Diets | Multiple Sclerosis | Neurology | Nutrition | Parkinson's Disease | Sports Medicine | Stroke | Study