Vaping and Cardiovascular Health: the Case for Health Policy Action
AbstractPurpose of ReviewE-cigarette smoking is rapidly increasing, especially in adolescents and adults, although data on their safety or harm is still scarce. There have been few systematic studies of the health effects of e-cigarette use and most studies report on the use of e-cigarettes in past or current cigarette smokers. In this paper, we want to summarize cardiovascular effects of e-cigarettes.Recent FindingsE-cigarettes could cause cardiovascular harm especially by the toxic effects and of the e-liquid and induction of oxidative stress. Nicotine has known effects on cardiovascular function that are not different in e-cigarettes to those in combustible cigarettes. Moreover, vaping nicotine could be the driver for future revival of combustible smoking.SummaryAlthough it seems that e-cigarettes are a safer alternative than combustible cigarettes for people that want to stop smoking, toxic effects of the e-liquid can induce an increase in cardiovascular risk. Long-term data of their safety are still scarce or even lacking and most data are generated in studies with active or past regular cigarette smokers. More data on the cardiovascular and metabolic side effects of vaping are warranted in people na ïve for smoking combustible cigarettes.
We present the case of a girl who underwent VPH for hemimegalencephaly in early infancy. Postoperatively, she developed unexpected seizures of mesio-temporal origin. Stereo-EEG provided arguments for an amygdalar origin. High-resolution MRI with tractography confirmed the presence of the amygdalo-fugal pathway to be responsible of epileptic discharges propagation. She became seizure-free after temporal resection.
ConclusionWe successfully utilized biportal endoscopy to decompress the combined lumbar lateral recess, foraminal, and extraforaminal lesions using a contralateral sublaminar approach.
We describe a patient with a long history of seizures and a remote status epilepticus event. On magnetic resonance imaging, a presumed left temporal lobe tumor was observed. On neurosurgical consultation, the lesion was identified as a chronic mesial temporal lobe herniation. The patient lacked history that would suggest risk of cerebral herniation. Accurately identifying the patient ’s chronic temporal lobe herniation radiographically likely saved this patient from unnecessary surgery or biopsy and allowed the patient to receive appropriate conservative care.
ConclusionsThe study represents the much-needed, large-volume, epidemiological profile of HI from an LMIC, highlighting the suboptimal utilization of peripheral healthcare systems. Strengthening and integrating these facilities with the tertiary centers in a hub and enhanced spoke model, task sharing design, and efficient back-referrals promise effective neurotrauma care while avoiding overburden in the tertiary centers. Better implementation of road safety laws also has the potential to reduce the burden of HI.