Enzymatic activities in the digestive tract of spirostreptid and spirobolid millipedes (Diplopoda: Spirostreptida and Spirobolida)

Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): V. Šustr, S. Semanová, M.M. Rost-Roszkowska, K. Tajovský, A. Sosinka, F. KaszubaAbstractMillipedes represent a model for the study of organic matter transformation, animal-microbial interactions, and compartmentalisation of digestion. The activity of saccharidases (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase, xylanase, chitinase, maltase, cellobiase, and trehalase) and protease were measured in the midgut and hindgut contents and walls of the millipedes Archispirostreptus gigas and Epibolus pulchripes. Assays done at pH 4 and 7 confirmed activities of all enzymes except xylanase. Hydrolysing of starch and laminarin prevailed. The hindgut of E. pulchripes was shorter, less differentiated. Micro-apocrine secretion was observed only in the midgut of A. gigas. Merocrine secretion was present in midgut and hindgut of E. pulchripes, and in the pyloric valve and anterior hindgut of A. gigas. Alpha-polysaccharidases were mostly active in the midgut content and walls, with higher activity at pH 4. The low activity of amylase (A. gigas) and laminarinase (E. pulchripes) in midgut tissue may indicate their synthesis in salivary glands. Cellulases were found in midgut. Chitinases, found in midgut content and tissue (E. pulchripes) or concentrated in the midgut wall (A. gigas), were more active at an acidic pH. Polysaccharidas...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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Abstract Lutjanids are marine fish and commonly inhabit coral reefs, which have migratory habits and feed in a general way, due to these characteristics, are susceptible to infections by parasites, such as cuculanid nematodes. This work aimed to report for the first time, the occurrence of Dichelyne (Dichelyne) bonacii in Brazil, in two new hosts, Lutjanus analis and Rhomboplites aurorubens, acquired from local artisanal fishermen at the Aracaju city public fishing terminal (10 ° 54'17 "S37 ° 2'56" W), northeast coast of Brazil. Adult nematodes were collected from the intestinal tract of the host...
Source: An Acad Bras Cienc - Category: Science Authors: Tags: An Acad Bras Cienc Source Type: research
This study assessed the potential role of the Sub-Saharan rodents Arvicanthis neumanni, A. niloticus and Mastomys natalensis as hosts of L. donovani and L. sp. from Ghana, based on experimental infections of animals and xenodiagnoses. The distribution and load of parasites were determined post mortem using qPCR from the blood, skin and viscera samples. The attractiveness of Arvicanthis and Mastomys to Phlebotomus orientalis was tested by pair-wise comparisons. None of the animals inoculated with L. donovani were infectious to P. orientalis females, although, in some animals, parasites were detected by PCR even 30 weeks pos...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis case further confirms the ability of these typical herbivores to be infected with Trichinella spp. This is the second confirmed case of Trichinella spp. infection in beavers in Europe and the first of T. spiralis.Graphical abstract
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Takao Irie, Kohji Uraguchi, Takuya Ito, Akiko Yamazaki, Shinji Takai, Kinpei YagiAbstractSarcocysts of various Sarcocystis spp. are highly prevalent in wild sika deer, Cervus nippon yesoensis, in Hokkaido, Japan, and four species have been identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics: S. ovalis, S. pilosa, S. tarandi-like, and S. truncata-like. The definitive hosts of S. ovalis are corvids, but the hosts of the other species have not yet been identified. Aiming to determine t...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Tsukushi Kamiya, Megan A. Greischar, Kiran Wadhawan, Benjamin Gilbert, Krijn Paaijmans, Nicole MideoAbstractIdentifying ecological drivers of disease transmission is central to understanding disease risks. For vector-borne diseases, temperature is a major determinant of transmission because vital parameters determining the fitness of parasites and vectors are highly temperature-sensitive, including the extrinsic incubation period required for parasites to develop within the vector. Temperature also underlies dramatic differences in the individual...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Helminthic parasitic infection is grossly prevalent across the globe and is considered a significant factor in human cancer occurrence induced by biological agents. Although only three helminths (Schistosoma haematobium, Clonorchis sinensis, and Opisthorchis viverrini) so far have been directly associated with carcinogenesis; there are evidence suggesting the involvement of other species too. Broadly, human helminthiasis can cause chronic inflammation, genetic instability, and host immune modulation by affecting inter- and intracellular communications, disruption of proliferation–anti-proliferation pathways, and stim...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Authors: Bartra-More CA, Ramos-Castillo J, Mendoza-Bautista RC, Galindo-Cabello NR, Gebol-Cahuaza M, Chirinos-Palomino FJ Abstract Timely diagnosis of malaria is a strategy proposed by the World Health Organization to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to assess performance in microscopic diagnosis of malaria in the network of laboratories under the National Malaria Reference Laboratory of the National Institute of Health between 2012 and 2017. In the years of study, the laboratories obtained a rating of "acceptable" in the diagnosis of Plasmodium by 38.4%, 43.7%, 60.0%, 83.3%, ...
Source: Revista Peruana de Medicina de Experimental y Salud Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: . Mechanical, thermal shock, and enzymatic pre-treatments are necessary for the rupture of the cystic wall of Giardia spp. making it the highest-yielding bg molecular marker for detecting cyst DNA. Trophozoites do not require pre-treatment to achieve satisfactory results. A reproducible methodology for the extraction of DNA from Giardia spp. from any evolutionary stage is available. PMID: 31800934 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista Peruana de Medicina de Experimental y Salud Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica Source Type: research
Conclusion: Leishmania major is responsible for the most common CL in southern Iran. In addition, in two patients with L. major and L. tropica, mix infection with Crithidia was confirmed. The potential role of Crithidia as the main factor for CL and the probability of this parasite to have synergistic effects on Leishmania, as a hypothesis, requires more comprehensive researches on the ambiguity of this protozoon. PMID: 31803781 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Arthropod Borne Dis Source Type: research
Conclusion: The mosquito collected and mapped can be considered for transmission of malaria and filariasis in the region. Bearing in mind the results of niche modeling for vector species, more studies on vectorial capacity and resistance status to different insecticides of these species are recommended. PMID: 31803777 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Arthropod Borne Dis Source Type: research
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