Aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with pre-harvest maize contamination in Uganda.

Aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with pre-harvest maize contamination in Uganda. Int J Food Microbiol. 2020 Jan 16;313:108376 Authors: Sserumaga JP, Ortega-Beltran A, Wagacha JM, Mutegi CK, Bandyopadhyay R Abstract Maize is an important staple crop for the majority of the population in Uganda. However, in tropical and subtropical climates, maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins, a group of cancer-causing and immuno-suppressive mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus section Flavi fungi. In Uganda, there is limited knowledge about the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination. The current study determined both the aflatoxin levels in pre-harvest maize across Uganda and the structures of communities of aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with the maize. A total of 256 pre-harvest maize samples were collected from 23 major maize-growing districts in eight agro-ecological zones (AEZ). Maize aflatoxin content ranged from 0 to 3760 ng/g although only around 5% for Ugandan thresholds. For EU it is about 16% of the samples contained aflatoxin concentrations above tolerance thresholds. A total of 3105 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were recovered and these were dominated by the A. flavus L morphotype (89.4%). Densities of aflatoxin-producing fungi were negatively correlated with elevation. Farming systems and climatic conditions of the AEZ are thought to have influenced communities' structure composition. Fungi from different AEZ varied significant...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research

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Abstract Two new [asperxins A (1) and B (2)] and four known (3-6) aflatoxins were isolated and identified from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. Y-2, which was derived from the needles of the critically endangered conifer Abies beshanzuensis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Among the isolates, compounds 1 and 5 showed considerable cytotoxicities against the A549 and Hela human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the range of 7.5-16.8 μM. PMID: 31782673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Natural Product Research - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Nat Prod Res Source Type: research
Aspergillus ochraceus is reported to be the major contributor of ochratoxin A (OTA), classified as one of the possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The heterotrimeric velvet complex proteins, LaeA/VeA/VelB, have been most studied in fungi to clarify the relation between light-dependent morphology and secondary metabolism. To explore possible genetic targets to control OTA contamination, we have identified laeA, veA, and velB in A. ochraceus. The loss of laeA, veA, and velB yielded mutants with differences in vegetative growth and conidial production. Especially, Δlae...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study, therefore, investigated the potential of two depsidones (Unguinol and Aspergillusidone D) to induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and cytotoxicity, and reduce cell proliferation in the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Results were compared with the effects of the cytostatic drug doxorubicin, antimitotic agent colchicine and endogenous hormones 17β-estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.The cytostatic drugs and hormones affected the MDA-MB-231 cell line comparable to other studies, showing the usefulness of this model to study the effects of depsidones on a triple-negative breast ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research
Fungal infections have increased in the last few decades as a result of the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and the growing number of immunocompromised patients (pts), which have led to changes in the saprophytic microorganisms usually isolated. Fungal empyema (FE) is still a rare entity, with a mortality rate of 70%. Retrospective analysis of fungal pleural effusions diagnosed in our hospital between 2015 and 2018. Aseptic sampling of pleural fluid was performed by thoracentesis, chest drainage (CT) or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Seventeen fungal isolates were obtained from 15 pts (12 males, mean age 60...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Biotechnology ReportsAuthor(s): Pradeep Kumar, Balwant Singh, Vikram Thakur, Abhishek Thakur, Nandita Thakur, Deepak Pandey, Duni ChandAbstractTaxol® (generic name Paclitaxel) is a chemotherapeutic drug, effective against head, neck, breast, lung, bladder, ovary, and cervix cancers. Rising demands in chemotherapy and limited supply of natural taxol have ultimately increased the cost of the drug. Semi synthesis using taxol precursors is not able to meet the global supply and has intensified the need to find alternative ways of taxol production. In the present st...
Source: Biotechnology Reports - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Purification and characterization of β-galactosidase from newly isolated Aspergillus terreus (KUBCF1306) and evaluating its efficacy on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Bioorg Chem. 2019 Nov 15;:103442 Authors: Vidya B, Palaniswamy M, Angayarkanni J, Ayub Nawaz K, Thandeeswaran M, Krishna Chaithanya K, Tekluu B, Muthusamy K, Gopalakrishnan VK Abstract β-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) are able to catalyze two different types of reactions, namely hydrolysis and transgalactosylation. It is a lysosomal exoglycosidase involved in the catabolism of glycoconjugates by sequential release of β-lin...
Source: Bioorganic Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Bioorg Chem Source Type: research
nioł A series of 18 aminochalcone derivatives were obtained in yields of 21.5–88.6% by applying the classical Claisen-Schmidt reaction. Compounds 4–9, 14 and 16–18 with 4-ethyl, 4-carboxy-, 4-benzyloxy- and 4-benzyloxy-3-methoxy groups were novel, not previously described in the scientific literature. To determine the biological properties of the synthesized compounds, anticancer and antimicrobial activity assays were performed. Antiproliferative potential was evaluated on four different human colon cancer cell lines—HT-29, LS180, LoVo and LoVo/DX —using the SRB assay ...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Phytochemistry, Volume 169Author(s): Qin Li, Chunmei Chen, Yan He, Mengsha Wei, Li Cheng, Xin Kang, Jianping Wang, Xincai Hao, Hucheng Zhu, Yonghui ZhangAbstractTwo undescribed prenylated quinolinone alkaloids, aspoquinolones E and F, and three undescribed prenylated isoindolinone alkaloids aspernidines F–H, were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Their structures and configurations were elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses and ECD spectra. Aspoquinolones E and F possess a C10 moiety with an unusual 2,2,4-trimethyl-3oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane unit, and aspernidine...
Source: Phytochemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) immunotherapy has ushered cancer treatment to a potential curative era. However, the unchecked immune responses may lead to vital organ damage that requires an immunosuppressive therapy and carries a high risk of opportunistic infections1. Here we present an unusual case of necrotizing soft tissue infection secondary to Aspergillus fumigatus in a patient with solid tumor treated with immunosuppressants due to immune related adverse events (irAEs).
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Authors: Dandachi D, Wilson Dib R, Fernández-Cruz A, Jiang Y, Chaftari AM, Hachem R, Raad I Abstract BACKGROUND: The characteristics and management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with hematologic malignancies are well known, but IPA in patients with solid tumours is not well described. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all Aspergillus-positive cultures at a tertiary cancer center during 2004-2017. We identified 101 patients with IPA and solid tumours. We analyzed the association between clinical features and treatment and 12-week mortality and response to antifungal therapy. ...
Source: Annals of Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Ann Med Source Type: research
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