The Interplay Between Pattern Recognition Receptors and Autophagy in Inflammation.

The Interplay Between Pattern Recognition Receptors and Autophagy in Inflammation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1209:79-108 Authors: Zhu Y, Deng J, Nan ML, Zhang J, Okekunle A, Li JY, Yu XQ, Wang PH Abstract Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are sensors of exogenous and endogenous "danger" signals from pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), while autophagy can respond to these signals to control homeostasis. Almost all PRRs can induce autophagy directly or indirectly. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway can induce autophagy directly through Beclin-1 or LC3-dependent pathway, while the interactions with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)/high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), CD91/Calreticulin, and TLRs/HSPs are achieved by protein, Ca2+, and mitochondrial homeostasis. Autophagy presents antigens to PRRs and helps to clean the pathogens. In addition, the induced autophagy can form a negative feedback regulation of PRRs-mediated inflammation in cell/disease-specific manner to maintain homeostasis and prevent excessive inflammation. Understanding the interaction between PRRs and autophagy in a specific disease will promote drug development for immunotherapy. Here, we focus on the inter...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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In conclusion, our findings show that dysfunctional mitochondria induce stress signaling to activate IP function and MHC I antigen presentation. In the aging lung defective mitochondrial function might thereby contribute to autoimmunity via altered MHC class I antigen presentation.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Airway cell biology and immunopathology Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Contributors : Chung Ki Wung ; Dhillon Poonam ; Sheng Xin ; Susztak KatalinSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusFibrosis of the kidney is the final common pathway leading to end stage renal failure. By analyzing kidneys of patients and animal models with fibrosis we observed a significant mitochondrial defect, including the loss of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in kidney tubule cells. Here, we generated mice with tubule-specific deletion of TFAM (Ksp-Cre/Tfam flox/flox). While these mice developed severe mitochondrial loss and energetic deficit (ATP level ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
Abstract Fibrosis is the final common pathway leading to end-stage renal failure. By analyzing the kidneys of patients and animal models with fibrosis, we observed a significant mitochondrial defect, including the loss of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in kidney tubule cells. Here, we generated mice with tubule-specific deletion of TFAM (Ksp-Cre/Tfamflox/flox). While these mice developed severe mitochondrial loss and energetic deficit by 6 weeks of age, kidney fibrosis, immune cell infiltration, and progressive azotemia causing death were only observed around 12 weeks of age. In renal ce...
Source: Cell Metabolism - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Metab Source Type: research
This study investigated the clinical factors and capacity to modulate Type I interferon (IFN-I) between two HBV polymerase polymorphisms rt269L and rt269I in genotype C. This report compared clinical factors between rt269L and rt269I in 220 Korean chronic patients with genotype C infections. The prevalence of preC mutations between rt269L and rt269I was compared using this study’s cohort and the GenBank database. For in vitro and in vivo experiments, transient transfection using HBV genome plasmid and HBV virion infection using HepG2-hNTCP-C4 and HepaRG systems and hydrodynamic injection of HBV genome into mice tail ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we identify a link between members of the genus Veillonella and exercise performance. We observed an increase in Veillonella relative abundance in marathon runners postmarathon and isolated a strain of Veillonella atypica from stool samples. Inoculation of this strain into mice significantly increased exhaustive treadmill run time. Veillonella utilize lactate as their sole carbon source, which prompted us to perform a shotgun metagenomic analysis in a cohort of elite athletes, finding that every gene in a major pathway metabolizing lactate to propionate is at higher relative abundance postexercise. Us...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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