From childhood cancer to mapping human development

(Academy of Medical Sciences (UK)) Professor Muzlifah Haniffa from Newcastle University and the Wellcome Sanger Institute* has won the 2019 Foulkes Foundation Medal for her ground-breaking contributions to biomedical science, it was announced today [Tuesday 19 November, 2019]. Professor Haniffa's research achievements include providing a better understanding of the developing human immune system and childhood kidney cancer, mapping the maternal-fetal interface and discovering new immune cells in the skin.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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(Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) A fundamental change in our understanding of the childhood kidney cancer Wilms' tumor is on the horizon, after the discovery of its earliest genetic root by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and their collaborators. By comparing genome sequences from normal kidney tissue and tumors, the team identified patches of normal-looking kidney tissue that in fact carried DNA changes that cause Wilms' tumor.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Adult cancers often arise from premalignant clonal expansions. Whether the same is true of childhood tumors has been unclear. To investigate whether Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma; a childhood kidney cancer) develops from a premalignant background, we examined the phylogenetic relationship between tumors and corresponding normal tissues. In 14 of 23 cases studied (61%), we found premalignant clonal expansions in morphologically normal kidney tissues that preceded tumor development. These clonal expansions were defined by somatic mutations shared between tumor and normal tissues but absent from blood cells. We also found hyper...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Development, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news
Contributors : Jarno Drost ; Marcel KoolSeries Type : Methylation profiling by genome tiling arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensKidney tumours are among the most common solid tumours in children, comprising several distinct subtypes differing in many aspects, including cell-of-origin, genetics, and pathology. Pre-clinical cell models capturing the disease heterogeneity are currently lacking. Here, we describe the first paediatric cancer organoid biobank. It contains tumour and matching normal kidney organoids from over 50 children with different subtypes of kidney cancer, including Wilms tumours, malignant rhabdoid tumours, renal...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Methylation profiling by genome tiling array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
ido Martignoni The new category of MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma has been included into the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2016. The MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma comprises Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma harboring TFE3 gene fusions and t(6;11) renal cell carcinoma harboring TFEB gene fusion. At the beginning, they were recognized in childhood; nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that these neoplasms can occur in adults as well. In the nineties, among Xp11 renal cell carcinoma, ASPL, PRCC, and SFPQ (PSF) were the first genes recognized as partners in TFE3 re...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, we reviewed major human studies on the health risks of radiation exposure and showed that sex-related factors may potentially influence the long-term response to radiation exposure. Available data suggest that long-term radiosensitivity in women is higher than that in men who receive a comparable dose of radiation. The report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR VII) published in 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences, United States emphasized that women may be at significantly greater risk of suffering and dying from radiation-induced cancer than men exposed to the same dose of radiation....
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study provides definitive evidence and possible mechanisms of intra-familial phenotypic heterogeneity in VHL families, which is helpful to the update of surveillance guidelines. Introduction von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease (MIM 193300) is a rare autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene (Latif et al., 1993; Lonser et al., 2003). Generally, the first VHL-related manifestation occurred in the third decade of patient’s life, and the penetrance is more than 90% by 70 years old (Ong et al., 2007; Nordstrom-O’brien et al., 2010). Patients may develop...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body's own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review. Introduction Chimeric antigen receptors and engineered T cell receptors (based on previously identified high affinity T cell receptors) function by redirecting T cells to a predefined tumor-specific (or tumor-associated) target. Most of these modifications use retroviral or lentiviral vectors to integrate the construct, and most of the receptors ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we collected a comprehensive multi-dimensional data from GWAS, gene expression, and methylation studies and generated transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) data to further interpret the GWAS association results. We applied our previously developed method called mega-analysis of Odds Ratio (MegaOR) to prioritize CD candidate genes (CDgenes). As a result, we identified consensus sets of CDgenes (62–235 genes) based on the evidence matrix. We demonstrated that these CDgenes were significantly more frequently interact with each other than randomly expected. Functional annotation of these genes highli...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer globally. Our prior unbiased proteomic screen of WT disparities revealed increased expression of Fragile X-Related 1 (FXR1) in Kenyan specimens where survival is dismal. FXR1 is an RNA-binding protein that associates with poor outcomes in multiple adult cancers. The aim of this study therefore was to validate and characterize the FXR1 expression domain in WT.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
The rates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths have fallen in the U.S. over the past few decades. But certain cancers are becoming more common among younger Americans, and researchers think obesity may be to blame, finds a new report from the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. Rates of six different cancers that are associated with obesity increased among adults ages 25-49 between 1995 and 2014, according to the research, which was published in the journal Lancet Public Health and based on information in the Cancer in North America database. These cancers include multiple myeloma, colorectal, endom...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Cancer healthytime Source Type: news
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