Cell-Free NADPH Oxidase Activation Assays: A Triumph of Reductionism.

Cell-Free NADPH Oxidase Activation Assays: A Triumph of Reductionism. Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2087:325-411 Authors: Pick E Abstract The superoxide (O2 ·-)-generating NADPH oxidase complex of phagocytes comprises a membrane-associated heterodimeric flavocytochrome, known as cytochrome b 558 (consisting of NOX2 and p22phox) and four cytosolic regulatory proteins, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and the small GTPase Rac. Under physiological conditions, in the resting phagocyte, O2 ·- generation is initiated by engagement of membrane receptors by a variety of stimuli, followed by signal transduction sequences leading to the translocation of the cytosolic components to the membrane and their association with the cytochrome, a process known as NADPH oxidase assembly. A consequent conformational change in NOX2 initiates the electron flow along a redox gradient, from NADPH to molecular oxygen (O2), leading to the one-electron reduction of O2 to O2 ·-. Historically, methodological difficulties in the study of the assembled complex derived from stimulated cells, due to its lack of stability, led to the design of "cell-free" systems (also known as "broken cells" or in vitro systems). In a major paradigm shift, the cell-free systems have as their starting point NADPH oxidase components derived from resting (unstimulated) phagocytes, or as in the predominant method at present, recombinant proteins representing the components of the ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Trends in GeneticsAuthor(s): Christof Niehrs, Cornelis F. CalkhovenChanges in epigenetic DNA methylation are the most promising predictor of biological age and lifespan in humans, but whether methylation changes affect ageing is unresolved. Here, we discuss converging data, which indicate that one mode by which aberrant DNA methylation can affect ageing is via CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ). This basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factor is controlled by the lifespan regulator mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and...
Source: Trends in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Gao M, Pang H, Kim YM, Lu X, Wang X, Lee J, Wang M, Meng F, Li S Abstract Translocation (9;11)(p21.3;q23.3) is one of the most common lysine methyltransferase 2A (KMT2A)-rearrangements in de novo and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the KMT2A/MLLT3 super elongation complex subunit (MLLT3) fusion gene on the derivative chromosome 11 serves a crucial role in leukemogenesis. Trisomy 9 as a secondary chromosome change in patients with t(9;11) is relatively rare. The present study reported a unique case of AML with a chromosome 9 trisomy ...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Dániel Kuti, Zsuzsanna Winkler, Krisztina Horváth, Balázs Juhász, Melinda Paholcsek, Anikó Stágel, Gabriella Gulyás, Levente Czeglédi, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J. KovácsAbstractChronic stress is often accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms, which might be due to stress-induced shift of gut microbiome to pathogenic bacteria. It has been hypothesized that stress alters gut permeability and results in mild endotoxemia which exaggerates HPA activity and co...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study aimed to examine cytological and functional characteristics of fascial adipocytes in rats. Superficial fascia had no adipocytes in neonatal rats but gradually appeared numbers of adipocytes in growing rats. Adipogenic progenitors were found to reside in fascia and had strong ability in spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation in vitro. Differentiated fascial adipocytes versus subcutaneous or visceral adipocytes expressed increased adipose triglyceride lipase but decreased beta-adrenoreceptor, perilipin-1 and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), thus having high basal lipolysis but low lipolysis response to ...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
Authors: Ruan J Abstract Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation leading to cyclin D1 overexpression and cell cycle dysregulation. Molecular profiling with gene expression and deep sequencing analyses has identified genomic and epigenomic alterations in pathways regulating the cell cycle, DNA damage response, proliferation, and survival, which contribute to disease progression with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Clinically, the nonnodal MCL subset is notable for leukemic presentation, indolent behavior, ...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
This study suggests that Diosgenin might be a promising candidate for developing anti-psoriatic agents.
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
In this study, we functionally identified an uncharacterized sodium ion transporter named OsNHAD which encodes a putative Na+ ⁄ H+ antiporter in rice. Homology search shows its close relation to the Arabidopsis Na+/H+ antiporter AtNHD1 with 72.74% identity of amino acids. OsNHAD transcripts mainly express in leaves and are induced by Na+ stress. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of OsNHAD::GFP fusion in tobacco leaves shows that OsNHAD resides in the chloroplast envelop. Knock-down of OsNHAD by RNA interference led to increased rice sensitivity to Na+, manifested by stunted plant growth, enhanced cellular d...
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i Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in adults, is a heterogeneous malignant clonal disorder arising from multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells characterized by genetic and concerted epigenetic aberrations. Core binding factor-Leukemia (CBFL) is characterized by the recurrent reciprocal translocations t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13;q22) that, expressing the distinctive RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (also known as Acute myeloid leukemia1-eight twenty-one, AML1-ETO or RUNX1/ETO) or CBFB-MYH11 (also known as CBFβ-ΣMMHX) translocation product respectively, disrupt the essential hematopoie...
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Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Journal of Functional FoodsAuthor(s): Federica Tonolo, Alessandra Folda, Luca Cesaro, Valeria Scalcon, Oriano Marin, Stefania Ferro, Alberto Bindoli, Maria Pia RigobelloAbstractBioactive peptides are relevant nutritional factors that exhibit many functions including antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticancer and antimicrobial properties. In this paper, four synthetic peptides ARHPHPHLSFM (A-11-M), AVPYPQR (A-7-R), NPYVPR (N-6-R) and KVLPVPEK (K-8-K) with sequences present in milk proteins were examined for their antioxidant properties. The compounds show moderate fre...
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