Coxiella burnetii Intratracheal Aerosol Infection Model in Mice, Guinea Pigs, and Nonhuman Primates Bacterial Infections

Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Q fever, is a Gram-negative bacterium transmitted to humans by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Acute Q fever is often self-limiting, presenting as a febrile illness that can result in atypical pneumonia. In some cases, Q fever becomes chronic, leading to endocarditis that can be life threatening. The formalin-inactivated whole-cell vaccine (WCV) confers long-term protection but has significant side effects when administered to presensitized individuals. Designing new vaccines against C. burnetii remains a challenge and requires the use of clinically relevant modes of transmission in appropriate animal models. We have developed a safe and reproducible C. burnetii aerosol challenge in three different animal models to evaluate the effects of pulmonary acquired infection. Using a MicroSprayer aerosolizer, BL/6 mice and Hartley guinea pigs were infected intratracheally with C. burnetii Nine Mile phase I (NMI) and demonstrated susceptibility as determined by measuring bacterial growth in the lungs and subsequent dissemination to the spleen. Histological analysis of lung tissue showed significant pathology associated with disease, which was more severe in guinea pigs. Infection using large-particle aerosol (LPA) delivery was further confirmed in nonhuman primates, which developed fever and pneumonia. We also demonstrate that vaccinating mice and guinea pigs with WCV prior to LPA challenge is capable of eliciting protective immunity th...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Bacterial Infections Source Type: research

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Conditions:   Sepsis;   Infective Endocarditis;   Pneumonia, Bacterial Interventions:   Diagnostic Test: Bood leukocyte subsets;   Diagnostic Test: The cholesterol content of the cell membrane of T-cells and monocytes Sponsors:   The Republican Research and Practical Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology;   Belarusian State Medical University Enrolling by invitation
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
In this study, C.burnetii was isolated by cell culture method from the heart valve tissue of a Q fever endocarditis case. C.burnetii phase I antigen for the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was prepared from the isolated strain. For the isolation and identification of C.burnetii, heart valve tissue of the patient was homogenized and DNA was extracted by tissue extraction kit. C.burnetii DNA in the valve tissue was determined by real-time PCR (Rt-PCR). This C.burnetii DNA positive specimen was inoculated into Vero cells by shell vial centrifugation method. The scraped Vero cells were fixed on the slides after one w...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2019Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology, Volume 171Author(s): T. Kanda, S. Tanaka, M. Suwanruengsri, E. Sukmawinata, R. Uemura, R. Yamaguchi, M. SueyoshiSummaryMycoplasma bovis is a microorganism associated with pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media of cattle; however, there are no reports of this organism causing bovine endocarditis. Five adult cattle with endocarditis characterized by caseated lesions (diameter 5–12 cm) of the endocardial surface of the left atrium, but without lesions in heart valves or affecting the right side of the heart, were identified in slaughter...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Background: Investigations of the relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and area under the concentration time curve (AUC) are growing, but still limited. The authors sought to determine vancomycin exposure among hospitalized adults with presumed or confirmed invasive staphylococcal infections using 2-level pharmacokinetic monitoring to inform changes to an institutional vancomycin dosing protocol. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study performed in 2 acute care hospitals. Adults prescribed vancomycin (therapeutic trough 15–20 mg/L) for a presumed or documented invasive staphylococc...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Abstract Nosocomial infections have become alarming with the increase of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. Being the causative agent in ~80% of the cases, these pathogenic gram-negative species could be deadly for hospitalized patients, especially in intensive care units utilizing ventilators, urinary catheters, and nasogastric tubes. Primarily infecting an immuno-compromised system, they are resistant to most antibiotics and are the root cause of various types of opportunistic infections including but not limited to septicemia, endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia, skin, and wound s...
Source: Genomics Proteomics ... - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Front Cell Infect Microbiol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: These results show that levonadifloxacin has an improved bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded quinolone-resistant S. aureus and meticillin-resistant S. aureus, and that it can be a promising treatment option for such infections. PMID: 31241446 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Nosocomial infections have become alarming with the increase of multidrug resistant bacterial strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. Being the causative agent in approximately 80% of the cases, these pathogenic gram-negative species could be deadly for hospitalized patients, especially in intensive care units utilizing ventilators, urinary catheters and nasogastric tubes. Primarily infecting an immuno-compromised system, they are resistant to most antibiotics and are the root cause of various types of opportunistic infections including but not limited to septicemia, endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia, skin and wound sepsis a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract To date, there has been little experience in using fosfomycin in children. However, its broad spectrum of action and excellent safety profile have renewed interest in this antibiotic, especially for treating infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The main indication for fosfomycin in pediatrics is currently community-acquired lower urinary tract infection. Given its good activity against bacteria, fosfomycin can also be useful in urinary infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria. Fosfomycin presents very good dissemination to tissues including bone and is therefor...
Source: Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Rev Esp Quimioter Source Type: research
Authors: Haas B, Grenier D Abstract Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen worldwide and causes considerable economic losses in the swine industry. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic agent, mainly in Asia. In pigs and humans, S. suis can cause septicemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, and meningitis with irreversible sequelae. Identification and characterization of the virulence factors produced by S. suis are major advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of S. suis infections and has therefore opened promising avenues for vaccine development against this pathogen. This litera...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
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