Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1076: Review on Outbreak Dynamics, the Endemic Serotypes, and Diversified Topotypic Profiles of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Isolates in Ethiopia from 2008 to 2018

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1076: Review on Outbreak Dynamics, the Endemic Serotypes, and Diversified Topotypic Profiles of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Isolates in Ethiopia from 2008 to 2018 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11111076 Authors: Ashenafi Kiros Wubshet Junfei Dai Qian Li Jie Zhang Foot and mouth disease (FMD) endemicity in Ethiopia’s livestock remains an ongoing cause for economic concern, with new topotypes still arising even in previously unaffected areas. FMD outbreaks occur every year almost throughout the country. Understanding the outbreak dynamics, endemic serotypes, and lineage profiles of FMD in this country is very critical in designing control and prevention programs. For this, detailed information on outbreak dynamics in Ethiopia needs to be understood clearly. In this article, therefore, we review the spatial and temporal patterns and dynamics of FMD outbreaks from 2008 to 2018. The circulating serotypes and the topotypic profiles of the virus are also discussed. FMD outbreak data were obtained from; reports of MoARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)/MoLF (Ministry of livestock and Fishery, NVI (National Veterinary Institute), and NAHDIC (National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center); published articles; MSc works; PhD theses; and documents from international organizations. To effectively control and prevent FMD outbreaks, animal health agencies should focus on building surveillance systems that can quickly identi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Andrew M. Skidmore, Robert S. Adcock, Colleen B. Jonsson, Jennifer E. Golden, Dong-Hoon ChungAbstractVenezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is endemic to the Americas. VEEV outbreaks occur periodically and cause encephalitis in both humans and equids. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines for treatment of VEEV in humans. Our group has previously reported on the development of a benzamidine VEEV inhibitor, ML336, which shows potent antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. In...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Michael T. Meehan, Robert C. Cope, Emma S. McBrydeAbstractPathogen evolution is an imminent threat to global health that has warranted, and duly received, considerable attention within the medical, microbiological and modelling communities. Outbreaks of new pathogens are often ignited by the emergence and transmission of mutant variants descended from wild-type strains circulating in the community. In this work we investigate the stochastic dynamics of the emergence of a novel disease strain, introduced into a population in w...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Wilderness &Environmental MedicineAuthor(s): James H. DiazCryptococcus neoformans, a soil-dwelling fungus found worldwide, can cause cryptococcosis, an opportunistic fungal infection of the lungs and central nervous system. One former member of the C neoformans complex, Cryptococcus gattii, has caused meningitis in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent persons in endemic regions in Africa and Asia. Between 1999 and 2004, C gattii caused outbreaks of human cryptococcosis in unexpected, nonendemic, nontropical regions on Vancouver Island, Canada, and throughout the...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Abstract Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is endemic to the Americas. VEEV outbreaks occur periodically and cause encephalitis in both humans and equids. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines for treatment of VEEV in humans. Our group has previously reported on the development of a benzamidine VEEV inhibitor, ML336, which shows potent antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. In cell culture experiments, ML336 inhibits viral RNA synthesis when added 2-4 h post-infection, and mutations conferring resistance occur within the viral nonstructural ...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
ConclusionAn ST2 LZD- and meticillin-resistant clone was found in the ICU and also in wards with low consumption of LZD. This highlights the need to implement and maintain infection control measures as well as antimicrobial stewardship programmes in all hospital units in order to preserve the efficacy of LZD.
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
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Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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