Recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) protects against both virulent pseudorabies virus and CSFV

Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Wu Tong, Hao Zheng, Guo-xin Li, Fei Gao, Tong-ling Shan, Yan-jun Zhou, Hai Yu, Yi-feng Jiang, Ling-xue Yu, Li-wei Li, Ning Kong, Guang-zhi Tong, Ji-chang LiAbstractBoth classical swine fever (CSF) and pseudorabies are highly contagious, economically significant diseases of swine in China. Although vaccination with the C-strain against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is widely carried out and severe outbreaks of CSF seldom occur in China, CSF is sporadic in many pig herds and novel sub-subgenotypes of CSFV endlessly emerge. Thus, new measures are needed to eradicate CSFV from Chinese farms. The emergence of a pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant also posed a new challenge for the control of swine pseudorabies. Here, the recombinant PRV strain JS-2012-ΔgE/gI-E2 expressing E2 protein of CSFV was developed by inserting the E2 expression cassette into the intergenic region between the gG and gD genes of the gE/gI-deletion PRV variant strain JS-2012-ΔgE/gI. The recombinant virus was stable when passaged in vitro. A single vaccination of JS-2012-ΔgE/gI-E2 via intramuscular injection fully protected against lethal challenges of PRV and CSFV. Vaccination of piglets with the recombinant JS-2012-ΔgE/gI-E2 in the presence of high levels of maternally derived antibodies (Abs) to PRV can provide partial protection against lethal challenge of CSFV. Vaccination of the recombinant PR...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Andrew M. Skidmore, Robert S. Adcock, Colleen B. Jonsson, Jennifer E. Golden, Dong-Hoon ChungAbstractVenezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is endemic to the Americas. VEEV outbreaks occur periodically and cause encephalitis in both humans and equids. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines for treatment of VEEV in humans. Our group has previously reported on the development of a benzamidine VEEV inhibitor, ML336, which shows potent antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. In...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Michael Basic, Fabian Elgner, Daniela Bender, Catarina Sabino, Marie-Luise Herrlein, Hanna Roth, Mirco Glitscher, Alicia Fath, Thomas Kerl, Hans-Günther Schmalz, Eberhard HildtAbstractZika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging virus belonging to the family of Flaviviridae, which contains several human pathogens. A great deal of attention came through the association of ZIKV infection with an increasing number of microcephaly cases in newborns during the 2016 outbreak in Brazil. Currently, no anti-viral drug or vaccine is available.Houttuyno...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Antonio E. Muruato, Chao Shan, Camila R. Fontes-Garfias, Yang Liu, Qiang Gao, Scott C. Weaver, Pei-Yong ShiAbstractZika virus (ZIKV) has drawn global attention as the etiologic agent of Zika Congenital Syndrome in babies born to infected pregnant women. To prevent future ZIKV outbreaks and protect persons at risk for severe disease, we developed two live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) candidates containing 10- or 20-nucleotide deletions in the 3′UTR of the viral genome (Δ10 and Δ20). After a single-dose immunization, both &D...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Anna Dubankova, Evzen BouraAbstractYellow fever virus (YFV) is responsible for devastating outbreaks of Yellow fever (YF) in humans and is associated with high mortality rates. Recent large epidemics and epizootics and exponential increases in the numbers of YF cases in humans and non-human primates highlight the increasing threat YFV poses, despite the availability of an effective YFV vaccine. YFV is the first human virus discovered, but the structures of several of the viral proteins remain poorly understood. Here we report the structure ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
This study has several limitations. Frist, HCV exists in a quasispecies form in human body (Martell et al., 1992). It will be better to obtain a single full-length genome sequence from a single virus. However, because of failure in amplification of near full-length HCV genome (>5000 bps), we amplified and sequenced 10 overlapping HCV genomic segments to obtain the whole genome sequence. Therefore, the genomic sequences obtained in this study contain some ambiguous (or degenerate) nucleotides (quasispecies population). Second, previous studies showed that vast majority of IDUs in Yunnan, especially in the China-Myanmar b...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We describe the unexpected binding of S-layer to cells devoid of DC-SIGN but also confirm that the presence of DC-SIGN was essential for S-layer’s antiviral activity. S-layer protein exerted its antiviral effect with different kinetics than mannan, a known viral inhibitor that also acts on DC-SIGN (Yu et al., 2017). Together our results suggest that inhibition of viral entry by S-layer occurs via a novel S-layer/DC-SIGN interaction. Materials and Methods Isolation of S-Layer Proteins S-layer proteins were extracted from overnight cultures of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 cells grown in MRS medium at 37°C by using 6...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Astghik Hakobyan, Erik Arabyan, Armen Kotsinyan, Zaven Karalyan, Harutyun Sahakyan, Vahram Arakelov, Karen Nazaryan, Fernando Ferreira, Hovakim ZakaryanAbstractAfrican swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of an economically important disease of pigs for which no effective vaccines or antiviral drugs are available. Recent outbreaks in EU countries and China have highlighted the critical role of antiviral research in combating this disease. We have previously shown that apigenin, a naturally occurring plant flavone, possesses sign...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
We report findings from in vitro assessments of four analogs of ML336, and in vivo screening of three of these new derivatives, BDGR-4, BDGR-69 and BDGR-70. The optimal dosing for maximal protection was observed at 12.5 mg/kg/day, twice daily for 8 days. BDGR-4 was tested further for prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in mice challenged with VEEV Trinidad Donkey (TrD). Mice challenged with VEEV TrD showed 100% and 90% protection from lethal disease when treated at 24 and 48 h post-infection, respectively. We also measured 90% protection for BDGR-4 in mice challenged with Eastern equine encephalitis virus. In additio...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Aslaa Ahmed, Gavriella Siman-Tov, Forrest Keck, Stephanie Kortchak, Allison Bakovic, Kenneth Risner, Timothy K. Lu, Nishank Bhalla, Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Aarthi NarayananAbstractVenezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a new world alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, causes periodic disease outbreaks in humans and equines with high associated mortality and morbidity. VEEV is highly infectious via the aerosol route and so has been developed as a biological weapon (Hawley and Eitzen, 2001). Despite its current classifica...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
This report summarizes the lectures held at the meeting and highlights advances in the field.
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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