Immunology Behind Tumors: A Mini Review

Conclusion: This review is focused not only on the mechanism by which the immune system protects us but also on the ways in which it can inflict the body and how to modulate it with therapy. Thus, understanding the interaction of a tumor with the immune system provides insights into mechanisms that can be utilized to elicit anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we have recapitulated the function of the tumor microenvironment and immune checkpoints.
Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Abstract Autoimmune encephalitides, with an estimated incidence of 1.5 per million population per year, although described only 15 years ago, have already had a remarkable impact in neurology and paved the field to autoimmune neuropsychiatry. Many patients traditionally presented with aberrant behavior, especially of acute or subacute onset, and treated with anti-psychotic therapies, turn out to have a CNS autoimmune disease with pathogenic autoantibodies against synaptic antigens responding to immunotherapies. The review describes the clinical spectrum of these disorders, and the pathogenetic role of key autoanti...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) like cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (anti-CTLA4) and programmed death cell protein 1 (anti-PD1) have revolutionized cancer treatment. As ICI use becomes widespread, more immune-related adverse events (irAE's) are being reported. Our aim was to investigate the frequency and nature of new irAE's as well as report the frequency of flare-ups of pre-existing autoimmune conditions occurring after ICI therapy. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients treated for cancer with anti-PD1 or anti-CTLA4 or combination therapy at our tertiary care center from January 2014...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
Neurologic autoimmune disorders in the context of systemic cancer reflect antitumor immune responses against onconeural proteins that are autoantigens in the nervous system. These responses observe basic principles of cancer immunity and are highly pertinent to oncological practice since the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitor cancer therapy. The patient ’s autoantibody profile is consistent with the antigenic composition of the underlying malignancy. A major determinant of the pathogenic outcome is the anatomic and subcellular location of the autoantigen.
Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Understanding disease Source Type: research
Abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized cancer therapy by blocking inhibitory pathways of the immune system to fight cancer cells. Their use is often limited by the development of autoimmune toxicities, which can affect multiple organ systems and are referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). Amongst these are rheumatologic irAE, including inflammatory arthritis, myositis, vasculitis, and others. Rheumatologic irAE seem to be different from irAE in other organs and from traditional autoimmune diseases in that they can occur early or have delayed onset, and can persist chronically, even ...
Source: J Rheumatol - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: J Rheumatol Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Xuequn Xu†, J. N. Rashida Gnanaprakasam†, John Sherman† and Ruoning Wang* Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, Hematology/Oncology &BMT, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States The adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) through genetic engineering is one of the most promising new therapies for treating cancer patients. A robust CAR T cell-mediated anti-tumor response requires the coordination of nutrient and energy supplies with CAR T cell expansion and function. Howe...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, T cells deficient in TRAF6 display enhanced T cell activation, CD28-indpendent stimulation and resistance to Treg cell-mediated suppression (176). Although TLR signaling can promote T cell resistance to Treg cells, the precise molecular mechanism remains yet to be elucidated. It is worth noting that TLR stimulation of T cells increases cytokine production (173, 177), thus future studies should delineate the effect of TLR-MyD88 signaling vs. subsequently induced cytokines in generating resistance to Treg cells. Lastly, it is also crucial to evaluate the effect of TLR signaling on regulatory T cells which also...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Th17 cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells that are essential in driving inflammation during autoimmune disease and infection through a signature cytokine IL-17. Th17 cells have been found in various human cancers. The function of these cells in cancers is highly context-dependent; both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing activity have been reported. IL-17 and IL-22, Th17-derived cytokines, influence the tumor microenvironment by directly promoting transformed cell properties and neighboring stromal cell activity. These cytokines are also involved in regulation of the immune system by modulatin...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research
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