Know safety, no fear

Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Susan Sangha, Maria M. Diehl, Hadley C. Bergstrom, Michael R. DrewAbstractEvery day we are bombarded by stimuli that must be assessed for their potential for harm or benefit. Once a stimulus is learned to predict harm, it can elicit fear responses. Such learning can last a lifetime but is not always beneficial for an organism. For an organism to thrive in its environment, it must know when to engage in defensive, avoidance behaviors and when to engage in non-defensive, approach behaviors. Fear should be suppressed in situations that are not dangerous: when a novel, innocuous stimulus resembles a feared stimulus, when a feared stimulus no longer predicts harm, or when there is an option to avoid harm. A cardinal feature of anxiety disorders is the inability to suppress fear adaptively. In PTSD, for instance, learned fear is expressed inappropriately in safe situations and is resistant to extinction. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of suppressing fear responses during stimulus discrimination, fear extinction, and active avoidance, focusing on the well-studied tripartite circuit consisting of the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
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Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
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Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
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