Know safety, no fear

Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Susan Sangha, Maria M. Diehl, Hadley C. Bergstrom, Michael R. DrewAbstractEvery day we are bombarded by stimuli that must be assessed for their potential for harm or benefit. Once a stimulus is learned to predict harm, it can elicit fear responses. Such learning can last a lifetime but is not always beneficial for an organism. For an organism to thrive in its environment, it must know when to engage in defensive, avoidance behaviors and when to engage in non-defensive, approach behaviors. Fear should be suppressed in situations that are not dangerous: when a novel, innocuous stimulus resembles a feared stimulus, when a feared stimulus no longer predicts harm, or when there is an option to avoid harm. A cardinal feature of anxiety disorders is the inability to suppress fear adaptively. In PTSD, for instance, learned fear is expressed inappropriately in safe situations and is resistant to extinction. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of suppressing fear responses during stimulus discrimination, fear extinction, and active avoidance, focusing on the well-studied tripartite circuit consisting of the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Related Links:

Background: The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria's neighboring countries and Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and post-tra...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Fear is a highly adaptive emotion that has evolved to promote survival and reproductive fitness. However, maladaptive expression of fear can lead to debilitating stressor-related and anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Although the ne...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): I Chun Ma, Wei Hung Chang, Chen-Long Wu, Chih-Hao LinBackgroundFew studies have explored the field experiences and risk factors related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among disaster rescue workers.MethodsA 6.4-magnitude earthquake struck southern Taiwan on February 6, 2016. A standardized, paper-based, self-administered survey questionnaire including demographic information, field experiences and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) was conducted among emergency medical technicians (EMTs)...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In our study, individuals in PSP with prior service experience in the armed forces were more likely to screen positive for indicators of some mental health disorders. Accordingly, mental health practitioners should inquire about previous service in the armed forces when screening, assessing, and treating PSP. PMID: 31830817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Can J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: In contrast to traditional early-phase trials that use symptom severity to track treatment efficacy, this study tracks engagement of the study drug on expression of behavioral sensitization, a functional mechanism likely to cut across disorders. This experimental therapeutics design is consistent with recent NIMH-industry collaborative studies, and could serve as a template for testing novel pharmacological agents in psychiatry.Clinical Trial, identifier NCT03166501.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
AbstractThe current study focused on kindergarten children ’s coping strategies after trauma and PTSD resulting from exposure to emergency situations during the summer of 2014, when their town was under continuous missile attacks, in the south west part of Israel near the Gaza Strip. The study explored children’s trauma by interviewing 150 kindergarten children (ages 4–6). We sought to present the children’s voice and understand their point of view, their subjective experiences, and their ways of coping with traumatic situations. The interviews revealed that during and following the period of contin...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
Early pregnancy losses are common, but their psychological sequalae are often overlooked. Previous studies have established links between miscarriage and early symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, the incidence of post-traumatic stress symptoms, and the psychological response specifically to ectopic pregnancies, has not been investigated.
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Original Research: Obstetrics Source Type: research
Opioids are a group of very strong pain relievers used to relieve pain after a surgery or traumatic injury. They are much more effective than over-the-counter pain relievers, however, they are also highly addictive. People who suffer from mental health conditions are much more likely to become addicted to opioids, making it important to understand the link between opioids and mental health. The Connection Between Addiction to Opioids and Mental Health People with mood and anxiety disorders are twice as likely to use opioids as people without mental health disorders They are also more than three times as likely to misuse ...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addiction Addiction to Pharmaceuticals Mental Health mental health costs mental health coverage mental illness opiate addiction opiates opioid opioid crisis opioids Source Type: blogs
This study aims to assess the psychological consequences ...
Source: BMC Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research
AbstractThe factor structure ofDSM ‐5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated, with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven ‐factor hybrid model. However, few studies examining PTSD symptom structure have assessed the implications of these proposed models on diagnostic criteria and PTSD prevalence. In the present study, we examined seven alternativeDSM ‐5 PTSD models within a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale –Self‐Report forDSM ‐5 (CPSS ‐5). Additionally, we generated prevalence rates for each of the seven models by using a symptom‐...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
More News: Anxiety | Brain | Environmental Health | Learning | Neurology | Neuroscience | Post Traumatic Stress Disorder | Universities & Medical Training