Novel Variants of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Can Severely Damage the Bursa of Fabricius of Immunized Chickens

This study not only determined the primary reason for the atypical IBD epidemic, but also remind us of the urgency for developing new vaccines against novel variant IBDV.
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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, Norheim G Abstract Today's world is characterized by increasing population density, human mobility, urbanization, and climate and ecological change. This global dynamic has various effects, including the increased appearance of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), which pose a growing threat to global health security.Outbreaks of EIDs, like the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa or the current Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), have not only put populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) at risk in terms of morbidity and mortality, but they also have had a significant impa...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Xian-Wei Wang, Mi Wang, Jing Zhan, Qian-Yu Liu, Lin-lin Fang, Chen-yao Zhao, Ping Jiang, Yu-Feng Li, Juan BaiAbstractSince late 2010, highly virulent PEDV G2-genotype strains have emerged globally extracting heavy losses on the pork industries of numerous countries. We investigated the characteristics of a field strain of PEDV (PEDV strain SH) isolated from a piglet with severe diarrhea on a farm in Shanghai China. Whole genome sequencing and analysis revealed that the SH strain belonged to subtype G2a and has a unique 12-aa deleti...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract In recent years, many studies have shown that recombinant adenovirus live vector-based vaccines are a promising novel vaccine candidate against virus infection. Therefore, in this study, a new type of recombinant adenovirus expressing the spike (S) protein of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), rAd-PEDV-S, was generated, and its characteristics were determined. Then, its efficacy as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in 4-week-old pigs. The results showed that the S protein could be well expressed at a high level in rAd-PEDV-S-infected cells and that the viral titers could reach 1011 PFU/mL. Fur...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
In conclusion, NPs-based vaccines can serve as novel candidate vaccines against several porcine viral infections with the potential to enhance the broader protective efficacy under field conditions. This review highlights the recent developments in NPs-based vaccines against porcine viral pathogens and how the NPs-based vaccine delivery system induces innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in varied level of protective efficacy.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objective of this theoretical study was to elucidate how these behavioral adaptations may affect the epidemiology of highly-pathogenic avian influenza in domestic poultry and the outcome of the implemented control policies. We studied a symmetric population game where the players are broiler poultry farmers at risk of infection and where the between-farms disease transmission is both environmental and mediated by poultry trade. Three types of farmer behaviors were modelled: vaccination, depopulation, and cessation of poultry farming. We found that the transmission level of the disease through trade networks has strong ...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly infectious intestinal disease caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). A PEDV strain was isolated from the piglet intestinal tract in Vero cells in Jiangsu Province, designated as the JS-A strain. PEDV was identified as the isolated virus by cytopathology, immunofluorescence assay, western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and sequence analysis. The full-length genome of the JS-A isolate and the S gene were systematically analyzed, indicating that PEDV JS-A belongs to the G2a subtype, which is closely related to the prevalent PEDV in many countries and differen...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Francis Lwapa Embele Isenge, Justin Masumu Mulumbu, François Matala Mfwamba, Fabrice Mukoko Ndonzuau, Victor Mbao, Nassim Moula, Nicolas Antoine-MoussiauxAbstractIn the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where state-driven animal vaccination campaigns are organized only in response to epidemics, the organization of a permanent animal vaccination service is urgently needed. A non-governmental organization has set up an experimental paid vaccination service for village chickens against Newcastle Disease (ND) in the Ko...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
by Yidan Li, Bernard Cazelles, Guoqing Yang, Marko Laine, Zheng X. Y. Huang, Jun Cai, Hua Tan, Nils Chr. Stenseth, Huaiyu Tian Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) has recently raised concern by causing geographic range expansion of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). SEOV infections in humans are significantly underestimated worldwide and epidemic dynamics of SEOV-related HFRS are poorly understood because of a lack of fiel d data and empirically validated models. Here, we use mathematical models to examine both intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of disease transmission from animal (the Norway rat) to humans in a SEOV-endemic ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Nipah virus is an emerging pathogenic paramyxovirus responsible for sporadic and isolated outbreaks of severe respiratory and neurologic disease in Southern Asia. As a zoonotic virus, disease can manifest in both animals and human with indigenous fruit bats acting as natural reservoirs of the virus. The effects of viral infection vary from acute respiratory distress to fatal encephalitis. There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines against the virus, and growing concerns that this highly pathogenic infection has the potential to cause larger epidemics capable of inflicting significant mortality burden.Like the...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
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