Cytochrome bd in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A respiratory chain protein involved in the defense against antibacterials

Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Ludovica Mascolo, Dirk BaldAbstractThe branched respiratory chain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has attracted attention as a highly promising target for next-generation antibacterials. This system includes two terminal oxidases of which the exclusively bacterial cytochrome bd represents the less energy-efficient one. Albeit dispensable for growth under standard laboratory conditions, cytochrome bd is important during environmental stress. In this review, we discuss the role of cytochrome bd during infection of the mammalian host and in the defense against antibacterials. Deeper insight into the biochemistry of mycobacterial cytochrome bd is needed to understand the physiological role of this bacteria-specific defense factor. Conversely, cytochrome bd may be utilized to gain information on mycobacterial physiology in vitro and during host infection. Knowledge-based manipulation of cytochrome bd function may assist in designing the next-generation tuberculosis combination chemotherapy.
Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Therefore, our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with altered levels of Type 2, regulatory and other anti-inflammatory cytokines, some of which are altered followed chemotherapy. Our data also reveal that anti-inflammatory cytokines are not markers of disease severity or bacterial burden in PTB. Elevations in anti-inflammatory cytokines might help prevent the detrimental effects of pro-inflammatory responses in PTB. PMID: 31811994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cytokine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data demonstrate that GSK656 exhibits significant species diversity in in vitro susceptibility against various mycobacteria species. GSK656 has potent efficacy against MTB and M. abscessus, whereas the inherent resistance is noted in M. intracellulare and M. avium. PMID: 31791947 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Conclusions: The KatG of M. marinum and MAP are substantially less effective in INH activation than that of Mtb, explaining their relative INH insensitivity. These data indicate that the Mtb-complex KatG is divergent from the KatG of NTM, such that there is a reciprocal relationship between resisting host defenses and INH resistance. Studying bacteria where KatG is functionally active but does not activate INH, may aid in understanding Mtb INH-resistance mechanisms, and suggest paths to overcome them. PMID: 31767723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract There is no reliable cure for Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease. Rifampin is not used clinically due to poor in vitro potency. In contrast, we have shown that rifabutin, another approved rifamycin used to treat tuberculosis, is potent in vitro against M. abscessus Here, we report that rifabutin is as active as clarithromycin against M. abscessus K21 in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid /NCrCrl mice. This suggests that rifabutin should be considered as repurposing candidate for patients with M. abscessus disease. PMID: 31767722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Conclusion: The use of ethionamide/ protionamide and PAS in patients with newly detected MDR TB was accompanied by symptoms of hypothyroidism during the entire period of observation. Most often, these changes were detected in the first two months of chemotherapy. The most pronounced pathological changes in the indicators of thyroid function were observed at 4 and 5 months of treatment.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Treatment of patients with tuberculosis with XDR combined with diabetes mellitus (DM) is difficult due to the more frequent development of neurotoxic unwanted adverse reactions (UAR) against the background of diabetic neuropathy.Objective: to assess the tolerability of the V chemotherapy regimen, including bedaquiline (Sirturo®) and linezolid (Zivox®) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with XDR combined with diabetes when prescribing thioctic acid (Thioctacid®) for the prevention and relief of UAR.126 TB patients with XDR and type 2 DM were observed: main group 1G (n = 66 people) and comparison group 2G (n...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Background: Tuberculosis is a global public health problem. Immunodepression is considered as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis. Immunocompromised patients with tuberculosis have different manifestations and outcome.Aim: Assess the prevalence of tuberculosis in immunocompromised (ID) patients and study its particularities.Methods: A cross sectional comparative study that included patients with tuberculosis followed in the pulmonology department C of Abderrahmen Mami hospital in Tunisia for a period of 7 years (between 2010 and 2017). They were divided into two groups : immunocompetent and immunocompromised.Results:...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Conclusions: aerobic anaerobic imbalance of vaginal microbiota is formed in patients of reproductive age on the background of TB chemotherapy. Therefore, women receiving intensive TB therapy should be included in the group of high risk on vaginal dysbacteriosis. They should receive preventive treatment with probiotics timely.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Purpose of the Study: To compare the effectiveness of single-stage bilateral pulmonary resection (SBPR) from unilateral intercostal-mediastinal access with video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) and consecutive bilateral pulmonary resection (CBPR) in treatment of patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).Material and Methods: An open, randomized, controlled, prospective clinical trial of 189 patients with bilateral destructive TB was conducted. In the 1st group (n=91), the SBPR with the VATS was performed from unilateral intercostal-mediastinal access, in the 2ndgroup (n=98), the CBPR was performed.Despite specific...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Thoracic surgery Source Type: research
Conclusion: Use of laser therapy and phonophoresis with hydrocortisone in patients with tuberculous pleurisy accelerated recovery and minimized residual changes.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
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