Melatonin: Implications for Ocular Disease and Therapeutic Potential.

Melatonin: Implications for Ocular Disease and Therapeutic Potential. Curr Pharm Des. 2019 Nov 12;: Authors: Scuderi L, Davinelli S, Iodice CM, Bartollino S, Scapagnini G, Costagliola C, Scuderi G Abstract Melatonin, an indoleamine secreted mainly by the pineal gland, is known to modulate a wide range of circadian functions. However, this neurohormone is also synthesized within the eye and acts directly on ocular structures to mediate a variety of physiological processes. This review is focused on the role and therapeutic potential of melatonin in ocular diseases. We summarize data indicating that melatonin may represent a powerful tool to counteract ocular dysfunctions such as uveitis, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. A search strategy was conducted to identify studies in PubMed (January 1990 to September 2017). In particular, we have included experimental studies, clinical trials, and reviews to provide suitable insights and elucidations regarding the action of melatonin on age-related ocular diseases. Literature data suggest that melatonin could potentially protect ocular tissues by scavenging free radicals and by reducing inflammatory mediators. Additionally, melatonin appears to be safe and well tolerated, even at high doses, and no adverse/side effects were reported. Although this topic remains under intense investigation, we can conclude that melatonin, as a single agent or in combination with other drugs, is a...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

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Authors: Li HY, Rong SS, Hong X, Guo R, Yang FZ, Liang YY, Li A, So KF Abstract  Many ocular diseases (such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and traumatic eye injuries) can result in the degeneration of retinal cells and the subsequent loss of vision. Some kinds of treatments, such as drugs, stem cell transplantation and surgery are reported to be effective in certain patients. However, no confirmatively effective, convenient and low-price intervention has been available so far. Physical exercise has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on several neurodegenerative...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: To identify factors associated with retinal capillary density as measured with Confocal Scanning Laser Doppler Flowmetry (Heidelberg retina flowmeter (HRF)) in the Thessaloniki Eye Study (TES). METHODS: Participants of the TES (age ≥60 years, cross-sectional population-based study) were assessed for active capillary density in the superior and inferior peripapillary retina using the HRF. Pixel-by-pixel analysis was performed to quantify the percentage of zero flow pixels (ZFPs; surrogate for % retinal area with non-active capillaries). Multivariable regression analyses were perform...
Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Br J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
We describe various retinal image datasets that can be used for deep learning purposes. Applications of deep learning for segmentation of optic disk,optic cup, blood vessels as well as detection of lesions are reviewed. Recent deep learning models for classification of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy are also discussed. Important critical insights and future research directions have been given.
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research
This study aimed to measure alterations of chemical elements’ (67) levels in the aqueous humor of patients undergoing cataract surgery. The pilot study included 115 patients, (age 74 ± 7.27, female 64.35%, male 35.65%). The aqueous levels of elements were measured by the use of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), quality controlled with certified standards. The classification of elements based on their concentration was achieved by hierarchical cluster analysis. This is the first screening study that quantifies over 60 elements which are present in the fluid from the...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: Aging and Mental Health - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Aging Ment Health Source Type: research
Abstract In recent years, regenerative medicine is gaining momentum and is giving hopes for restoring function of diseased, damaged, and aged tissues and organs and nanotechnology is serving as a catalyst. In the ophthalmology field, various types of allogenic and autologous stem cells have been investigated to treat some ocular diseases due to age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal and lens traumas. Nanomaterials have been utilized directly as nanoscaffolds for these stem cells to promote their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation or indirectly a...
Source: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Drug Deliv Rev Source Type: research
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Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research
We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
oss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study Abstract BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020. METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity
Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Br J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
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