Distinct and overlapping functions of glutathione peroxidases 1 and 2 in limiting NF-κB-driven inflammation through redox-active mechanisms

Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Solveigh C. Koeberle, André Gollowitzer, Jamila Laoukili, Onno Kranenburg, Oliver Werz, Andreas Koeberle, Anna P. KippAbstractGlutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) is one of the five selenoprotein GPxs having a selenocysteine in the active center. GPx2 is strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal epithelium, as is another isoform, GPx1, though with a different localization pattern. Both GPxs are redox-active enzymes that are important for the reduction of hydroperoxides.Studies on GPx2-deficient mice and human HT-29 cells with a stable knockdown (kd) of GPx2 revealed higher basal and IL-1β-induced expression of NF-κB target genes in vivo and in vitro. The activation of the IKK–IκBα–NF-κB pathway was increased in cultured GPx2 kd cells. Basal signaling was only restored by re-expressing active GPx2 in GPx2 kd cells but not by redox-inactive GPx2. As it is still not clear if the two isoforms GPx1 and GPx2 have different functions, kd cell lines for either GPx1 or GPx2 were studied in parallel. The inhibitory effect of GPx2 on NF-κB signaling and its target gene expression was stronger than that of GPx1, whereas cyclooxygenase (COX)- and lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived lipid mediator levels increased more strongly in GPx1 kd than in GPx2 kd cells. Under unstimulated conditions, the levels of the COX-derived prostaglandins PGE2 and PGD2 were enhanced in...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Authors: Toma M, Beluşică L, Stavarachi M, Apostol P, Spandole S, Radu I, Cimponeriu D Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease preventable in up to 50% of the patients by lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategy for the decrease in the incidence and mortality of CRC is based on understanding the relations between the environmental and genetic factors. The most important identified risk factors for CRC are aging, personal and familial history of CRC or adenomas, hereditary colon cancer syndromes, dietary patterns, and inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this review is to update data referring ...
Source: Journal of Medicine and Life - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Med Life Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Cirugía Española (English Edition)Author(s): Walid Ezzedine, Alice Frontali, Yves Panis
Source: Cirugia Espanola - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe atypical clinical presentation of some CGD patients can make genotype –phenotype correlation with DHR flow data challenging. Genetic testing, while useful for confirmation of diagnosis, can take several weeks, and in some patients does not provide a conclusive answer. However, NADPH-oxidase-specific protein flow assessment offers a rapid alternative to identificatio n of the underlying genetic defect in cellular subsets, and can be utilized as a reflex test to an abnormal DHR flow. Further, it can provide insight into correlation between oxidative burst relative to protein expression in granulocytes and monocytes.
Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Noori E, Kazemi B, Bandehpour M, Zali H, Khalesi B, Khalili S Abstract Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by malabsorption in sensitive individuals. CD is triggered by the ingestion of grains containing gluten. CD is concomitant with several other disorders, including dermatitis herpetiformis, selective IgA deficiency, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, various connective tissue disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The advent of high throughput technologies has provided a massive wealth of data which are processed in various omics scale...
Source: Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research
ABSTRACT: The lifelong, chronic nature of Crohn's disease produces incessant stress that affects individuals physically, emotionally, and socially. Coping with the symptoms and treatment is improved when persons engage their faith and spiritual resources. Clear understanding of the physical and emotional aspects of Crohn's can support a person's ability to manage the disease. Knowledge of emerging treatments also provides nurses with hopeful input to share with their patients.
Source: Journal of Christian Nursing - Category: Nursing Tags: JCN Online Extra: online only: practice Source Type: research
In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a long course of oral vancomycin is associated with lower odds of Clostridioides difficile infection recurrence than a short course, a retrospective chart review reveals.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines - Category: Pathology Tags: Gastroenterology News Source Type: news
Authors: Liu Z, Xie W, Li M, Liu J, Liang X, Li T Abstract Polaprezinc (PZ), a chelate of zinc and L-carnosine, has been widely used in the treatment of gastric ulcers since 1994. In recent years, researchers have found PZ to have a beneficial effect on various experimentally induced models of colitis in mice. In the present study, 6% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was used to induce a model of ulcerative colitis (UC) in Institute of Cancer Research mice. The therapeutic effect and mechanism of PZ action in a model of UC was studied in order to provide an experimental basis for the clinical application of PZ in UC tr...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundMediterranean diet (MED) is associated with health benefits, yet scarce data exist regarding the role of MED in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Herein, we aimed to evaluate the association between MED and inflammatory markers in patients with IBD after pouch surgery.MethodsConsecutive patients after pouch surgery due to ulcerative colitis (UC) were recruited at a comprehensive pouch clinic. Adherence to MED was calculated according to MED score, ranging from 0 (low adherence) to 9 (high adherence), based on food-frequency questionnaires. Pouch behavior was defined as normal pouch (NP) or pouchitis base...
Source: European Journal of Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
ConclusionRecurrent pyoderma gangrenosum lesions may be the expression of colonic adenocarcinoma in paraneoplastic syndrome and require colonoscopy, especially in at-risk patients.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
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