Advanced Imaging in Female Infertility

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of reproductive disorders. The additional information that imaging studies can contribute to reproductive medicine is emphasized, including the role of pelvic ultrasonography (US, including sonohysterography and contrast-enhanced hysterosalpingosonography), hysterosalpingography (HSG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the female reproductive tract. In addition, the implications of congenital causes of infertility on the urinary tract in females are reviewed.Recent Findings SummaryWhile the evaluation of infertility in women is initially focused on the assessment of ovulation via serum hormone levels, imaging plays a role in evaluating other causes of infertility. Recent research in this field focuses on the establishment of a comprehensive single imaging study for the assessment of female reproductive disorders. Two proposed methods are MR hysterosalpingography and Fertiliscan, a combination of high-quality 3D ultrasound and assessment of tubal patency with hysterosalpingo-foam-sonography, though more research is needed to determine the risks and benefits of each method, as well as their reliability.
Source: Current Urology Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

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The last 15 years has seen an exponential rise in the number of publications on adenomyosis, a disease first described in the 19th century (1). In 2005, 53 papers were published; over the past several years around 200 publications have appeared on PubMed. This renewed interest can be attributed not only to increased awareness but also to significantly improved technology. The quality of the ultrasound scanners we use today in clinical examination can identify a disease that previously had required the patient to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Source: Fertility and Sterility - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Reflections Source Type: research
This article will expand upon the complementary role of MRI and highlight clinical scenarios where MRI can provide additional information that could not be obtained in the patient's initial ultrasound.
Source: Ultrasound Quarterly - Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Shabnam Bhandari Grover, Neha Antil, Amit Katyan, Heena Rajani, Hemal Grover, Pratima Mittal, Sudha PrasadIndian Journal of Radiology and Imaging 2020 30(1):32-45 Infertility is a major social and clinical problem affecting 13–15% of couples worldwide. The pelvic causes of female infertility are categorized as ovarian disorders, tubal, peritubal disorders, and uterine disorders. Appropriate selection of an imaging modality is essential to accurately diagnose the aetiology of infertlity, since the imaging diagnosis directs the appropriate treatment to be instituted. Imaging evaluation begins with hystero- salping...
Source: Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionAn unusual presentation of regular menstruation and nonspecific abdominal pain delays the diagnosis, which can lead to complications such as endometriosis and infertility. Awareness is required; otherwise, misdiagnosis clearly can occur.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: European Journal of Obstetrics &Gynecology and Reproductive BiologyAuthor(s): Xiaoyan Tang, Jue Wang, Yan Du, Meng Xie, Hongwei Zhang, Heyang Xu, Keqin HuaABSTRACTObjectivesTo determine the risk factors for development of caesarean scar defect (CSD), compare the efficacy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for CSD assessment, and investigate the association between CSD size and clinical symptoms.Study designOne hundred and eighty-nine women with CSD and 378 women without CSD with a history of caesarean section (CS) at the Obste...
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhen should ‘not so rare’ Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) of the testis be suspected, diagnosed, and treated?SUMMARY ANSWERLCTs are more frequent than generally believed, are associated with male infertility, cryptorchidism and gynecomastia, and should be treated conservatively (in compliant patients) with active surveillance, which appears to be a safe alternative to surgical enucleation.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYIncreasing referrals for testicular imaging have led to an increase in findings of LCTs. The features and natural history of these tumors remain largely unknown, as the available studies ar...
Source: Human Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe results of this study offer some support for evaluating the effect of pretreatment with LNG-IUS in women with adenomyosis in future randomized controlled trials.
Source: Reproductive BioMedicine Online - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The era of total orchiectomy for any uncertain testicular lesion is over. We try the challenge of characterization, and define management's algorithms based on clinical biological data and suspected nature of the tumor at imaging. PMID: 31088679 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bulletin du Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Bull Cancer Source Type: research
Since the early 2000s there has been an ever-increasing awareness of cesarean section scar defects. Much of this is due to increased utilization of pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and improvements in resolution. Perhaps driving this is a significant increase and prevalence in cesarean sections in the United States, followed by issues with postmenstrual spotting, irregular bleeding, pelvic pain, or infertility. Most studies looking at cesarean scar defects in patients with a history of a prior cesarean section note a prevalence between 24% and 70% when a pelvic ultrasound is done and 56% and 84% when a...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Reflections Source Type: research
This study indicates that US and MRI are two useful and noninvasive imaging methods for the diagnosis and evaluation of CAIS, and identification of this novel mutation expands the database of AR gene mutations. Furthermore, with the availability of the identification technology for this mutation, prenatal diagnosis could be offered for future pregnancies.
Source: Steroids - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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