Advanced urothelial cancer: a radiology update

AbstractThe recent genomic characterization of urothelial carcinoma by the Cancer Genome Atlas Project, made possible by the introduction of high throughput, reduced cost, and sequence analysis, has shed new insights on the biology of advanced disease. In addition, studies on imaging of advanced urothelial carcinoma have widened the knowledge on disease presentation and on pattern of metastatic spread and their correlation with the underlying biology of urothelial carcinoma. The wide range of treatments for advanced urothelial cancer, including combined chemotherapy regimens and immune checkpoint inhibitors, each result in treatment class-specific patterns of response and adverse events. Results of studies point to the need for a reliable biomarker, perhaps with imaging, that predicts prognosis and treatment response to systemic treatment, and can be used to select the most effective treatment while minimizing toxicity. This review of advanced urothelial cancer introduces the latest advances in genetic profiling, the current role of imaging, the radiographic appearance of treatment response and their toxicities, and details potential future areas of imaging research.
Source: Abdominal Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONWe report a case of laparoscopic hepatectomy for liver metastasis of lung LCNEC. It is suggested that surgical resection for solitary distant metastasis of LCNEC may improve prognosis.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsOnly 3.2% of patients developed a symptomatic respiratory complication following CRS and HIPEC. A pleural effusion was identified in almost all patients requiring a diaphragmatic peritonectomy as part of their CRS; however, less than one in ten of these patients required pleural drainage. Prophylactic insertion of a pleural drainage tube is, therefore, not indicated following CRS and HIPEC.
Source: Clinical and Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this report, we present familial cases of urothelial carcinoma. To investigate the possibility of hereditary urothelial cancer, we performed semiconductor-based next-generation DNA sequencing. A woman in her 80s who had bladder and left ureteral cancer was hospitalized in Sapporo Shirakaba-dai Hospital due to consciousness disturbance. Radiographic evaluation revealed multiple liver metastases and she died 38  days later. Needle necropsy was done for a left ureteral tumor that continued to her bladder tumor and for liver metastases. At the same time, her son in his 60s, who also had muscle-invasive bladder cancer, ...
Source: International Cancer Conference Journal - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionPrimary adenocarcinoma of the jaw is extremely rare, except for 2–3% central mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The possibility of a metastatic tumor should be a consideration when encountering unusual histomorphology of an adenocarcinoma in the jaw bone.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Conclusions: The proposed nomogram is a reliable and robust tool for accurate prognostic prediction in patients with extremity soft tissue LMS. Introduction Soft tissue leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an aggressive sarcoma, which originates from smooth muscle cells (1). Soft tissue LMS accounts for about 5–10% of all soft tissue sarcomas (2). It occurs in different sites, including the retroperitoneum, intraabdominal sites, and extremities (3). Extremity LMS comprised about 10–15% of extremity sarcomas, with a preference for the lower limb (4–6). Extremity LMS tends to have a better prognosis than uterine...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions The recent, first randomized clinical trial demonstrated overall and progression free survival benefits after SBRT to oligometastatic disease which supports prior retrospective case series (6). The spine is a common site of metastatic bone disease, and as high quality data continue to mature, along with completion of additional randomized clinical trials, it is expected that utility of SBRT to the spine will increase in the future. Spine SBRT is unique due to the requirement of sharp dose falloff to prevent serious neurologic morbidity. With recent advances in radiotherapy planning, robotic patient positionin...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The newly developed radiomic signature was a powerful predictor of LN metastasis and the radiomics nomogram could facilitate the preoperative individualized prediction of LN status. Introduction Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide (1). Accurate evaluation of lymph node metastasis (LNM) status in GC patients is vital for prognosis and treatment decisions (2–4). Some histopathologic factors and biomarkers (e.g., lymphatic invasion, matrix metalloproteinase-2) are found to be able to predict LNM in GC, but mos...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Mark E. Gray1,2*, James Meehan2,3, Paul Sullivan4, Jamie R. K. Marland4, Stephen N. Greenhalgh1, Rachael Gregson1, Richard Eddie Clutton1, Carol Ward2, Chris Cousens5, David J. Griffiths5, Alan Murray4 and David Argyle1 1The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 2Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre and Division of Pathology Laboratories, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 3School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Institute of Sensors, Signals and Systems, Heriot-Watt Univer...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions: 3D-HDR-BT achieves favorable clinical outcomes with mild late toxicity in patients with locally rNPC. Introduction Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a tumor of epithelial origin, is a malignant disease of the head and neck common in southern China, especially in Guangdong province (1). As a result of advances in modern imaging and irradiation techniques, the 5-year overall survival (OS) of patients with newly diagnosed NPC without metastasis has reached 75% after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in Asia (2, 3). However, local recurrence, which occurs in 18–40% of patients, remains a major reason for...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Fat fraction on MRI corresponded to fat content on histology and therefore contributes to lesion characterization. Measurement repeatability was excellent for ADC; this parameter increased significantly post-radiotherapy even in disease categorized as stable by size criteria, and corresponded to cellularity on histology. ADC can be utilized for characterizing and assessing response in heterogeneous retroperitoneal sarcomas. Introduction Soft-tissue sarcomas are often highly heterogeneous tumors with variable components that can include cellular tumor, fat, necrosis, and cystic change. In many soft-tissue ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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