Cross-Talk Between circRNAs and mRNAs Modulates MiRNA-mediated Circuits and Affects Melanoma Plasticity

AbstractCircularRNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs which compete for microRNA (miRNA) binding, influencing the abundance and stability of other RNA species. Herein we have investigated the effect of circRNAs on the mir200-ZEB1 feedback loop in relationship with the aggressiveness of human melanoma cells. We first compared the level of expression of key factors in the mir200-ZEB1 feedback loop in primary human melanoma cells compared with their matching metastatic one and found a correlation between the aggressiveness of the cells and the level of expression of ZEB1 and SNAI1. We also analyzed factors in the mir200-ZEB1 feedback loop, including circZEB1, during the phenotypic switching of human melanoma cells. Our results showed a correlation between the level of ZEB1 and SNAI1 and the fraction of cancer stem cells in the population. The level of circZEB1 was, however, consistently high during the entire phenotypic transformation. To understand this result we propose a mathematical model of the regulatory circuit. According to the model, the experimental observations can be explained by the presence of a back-splicing factor limiting circRNA production.
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Tamara T. Lah, Metka Novak, Barbara BreznikAbstractBrain, the major organ of the central nervous system controls and processes most of body activities. Therefore, the most aggressive brain tumor – glioblastoma and metastases from other organs to the brain are lethal leaving the patients with very short time of survival. The brain tissue landscape is very different from any other tissues and the specific microenvironment, comprising stem cells niches and blood-brain barrier, significantly influences the low rate of glioblast...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, using melanoma and NSCLC cells, we demonstrate that ALDH3A1 isozyme overexpression and activity is closely associated with a highly aggressive mesenchymal and immunosuppressive profile. The contribution of ALDH3A1 to the stemness and immunogenic status of melanoma and NSCLC cells was evaluated by their ability to grow in 3D forming tumorspheres, and by the expression of markers for stemness, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and inflammation. Furthermore, in specimens from melanoma and NSCLC patients, we investigated the expression of ALDH3A1, PD-L1, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by immunohistochemi...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
-Hui Lee Nan-Shan Chang Membrane hyaluronidase Hyal-2 supports cancer cell growth. Inhibition of Hyal-2 by specific antibody against Hyal-2 or pY216-Hyal-2 leads to cancer growth suppression and prevention in vivo. By immunoelectron microscopy, tumor suppressor WWOX is shown to be anchored, in part, in the cell membrane by Hyal-2. Alternatively, WWOX undergoes self-polymerization and localizes in the cell membrane. Proapoptotic pY33-WWOX binds Hyal-2, and TGF-β induces internalization of the pY33-WWOX/Hyal-2 complex to the nucleus for causing cell death. In contrast, when pY33 is downregulated and pS14 upreg...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractIn our genomes there are thousands of copies of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) originated from the integration of exogenous retroviruses that infected germ line cells millions of years ago, and currently an altered expression of this elements has been associated to the onset, progression and acquisition of aggressiveness features of many cancers. The transcriptional reactivation of HERVs is mainly an effect of their responsiveness to some factors in cell microenvironment, such as nutrients, hormones and cytokines. We have already demonstrated that, under pressure of microenvironmental changes, HERV-K (HML-2)...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Tamara T. Lah, Metka Novak, Barbara BreznikAbstractBrain, the major organ of the central nervous system controls and processes most of our body activities and therefore the most aggressive brain tumor – glioblastoma and metastases from other organs to the bran are lethal, leaving the patients with very low survival time. The brain tissue landscape is very different from any other tissues and the specific microenvironment significantly shape up the glioblastoma local progression and metastasis out of the brain, as well as ac...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this report, we analyzed gene expression profiles of paired specimens of keratinocyte carcinomas with their matched normal skin tissues as the control. Among several novel findings, we discovered a significant number of zinc finger encoding genes up-regulated in human BCC. In BCC, a novel link was found between hedgehog signaling, Wnt signaling, and the cilium. While the SCC cancer-stem-cell gene signature is shared between human and mouse SCCs, the hair follicle stem-cell signature of mice was not highly represented in human SCC. Differential gene expression (DEG) in human BCC shares gene signature with both bulge and ...
Source: Genes and Diseases - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Creatine, the organic acid that is popularly taken as a supplement by athletes and bodybuilders, serves as a molecular battery for immune cells by storing and distributing energy to power their fight against cancer, according to new UCLA research.The study, conducted in mice and published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, is the first to show that creatine uptake is critical to the anti-tumor activities of CD8 T cells, also known as killer T cells, the foot soldiers of the immune system. The researchers also found that creatine supplementation can improve the efficacy of existing immunotherapies.“Because oral ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: This update of the I blood group system (Cooling L. Polylactosamines, there's more than meets the "Ii": a review of the I system. Immunohematology 2010;26:133-55) continues to show the Ii antigens to be increasingly recognized as important posttranslational modifiers regulating cell adhesion, signaling, differentiation, and cancer. Ii antigens can modulate the immune response through the galectin lattice, as well as influence specific protein-protein interactions. Changes in GCNT2 and I expression accompany stem cell differentiation and are associated with tumor progression in melanoma and breast and...
Source: Immunohematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Immunohematology Source Type: research
Tumor stroma resembles a fibrotic microenvironment, being characterized by the presence of myofibroblast-like cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). In wild-type mice injected with melanoma cells, we show that the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 is expressed by tumor cells and induced in CAFs derived from synthetic fibroblasts. These fibroblasts were labeled postnatally with green fluorescent protein using mice expressing a tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase under the control of a fibroblast-specific promoter/enhancer.
Source: American Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Regular article Source Type: research
Tumor stroma resembles a fibrotic microenvironment, being characterized by the presence of myofibroblast-like cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). In wild-type mice injected with melanoma cells, we show that the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 is expressed by tumor cells and induced in CAFs derived from synthetic fibroblasts. These fibroblasts were labeled postnatally with green fluorescent protein using mice expressing a tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase under the control of a fibroblast-specific promoter/enhancer.
Source: American Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Regular article Source Type: research
More News: Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Melanoma | Skin Cancer | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells