Non-sedating benzodiazepines cause paralysis and tissue damage in the parasitic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni

by Paul McCusker, Md Yeunus Mian, Guanguan Li, Michael D. Olp, V. V. N. Phani Babu Tiruveedhula, Farjana Rashid, Lalit Kumar Golani, Ranjit S. Verma, Brian C. Smith, James M. Cook, John D. Chan Parasitic flatworm infections (e.g. tapeworms and fluke worms) are treated by a limited number of drugs. In most cases, control is reliant upon praziquantel (PZQ) monotherapy. However, PZQ is ineffective against sexually immature parasites, and there have also been several concerning reports on ce stode and trematode infections with poor PZQ cure-rates, emphasizing the need for alternative therapies to treat these infections. We have revisited a series of benzodiazepines given the anti-schistosomal activity of meclonazepam (MCLZ). MCLZ was discovered in the 1970’s but was not brought to mar ket due to dose-limiting sedative side effects. However, in the decades since there have been advances in our understanding of the benzodiazepine GABAA receptor sub-types that drive sedation and the development of sub-type selective, non-sedating ligands. Additionally, the sequencing of flatworm genomes reveals that parasitic trematodes and cestodes have lost GABAAR-like ligand gated anion channels, indicating that MCLZ ’s anti-parasitic target is distinct from the human receptors that drive sedation. Therefore, we have screened a library of classical and non-sedating 1,4-benzodiazepines againstSchistosoma mansoni and identified a series of imidazobenzodiazepines that immobilize wormsin...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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In conclusion, the aqueous stem extract of B. alnoides possesses antimalarial properties. A single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight had no significant toxic effects on the function and structure of the kidneys and liver. These results support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. PMID: 31814839 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): Fatemeh Khadir, Tahereh Taheri, Sima Habibzadeh, Farnaz Zahedifard, Elham Gholami, Maryam Heidari-Kharaji, Ahmad Oryan, Sima RafatiAbstractCutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is a parasitic disease in animals and human with no satisfactory treatments and vaccination. Rapamycin is a potent inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with various applications. Here, the effect of rapamycin alone or in combination with two other drugs, namely amphotericin B (AmB) and glucantime, was investigated against Leishmania tropica infection. In...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Parasite cleanses aim to rid the body of parasitic infections, such as worms. These products make more claims than research supports. Learn more about parasite cleanses in this article.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Complementary Medicine / Alternative Medicine Source Type: news
Conclusion from this study indicates that apart from the folkloric uses of this plant in traditional settings, the extracts possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial, antitrypanosomal, and antimalarial activities and some pharmaceutically essential bioactive components with remarkable antioxidant capacities that may be used in the synthesis of novel drugs for the management of different varieties of ailments. PMID: 31558912 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
In this study, we screened 62 compounds comprising natural products (NPs) and FDA-approved (FDA) drugs, to identify the hit compounds that suppress the growth of T. gondii. To determine the parasite inhibitory potential of the compounds, host mammalian cells were infected with a transgenic T. gondii strain, and the viability of the parasite was evaluated by luminescence. Of the 62 compounds, tubericidin, sulfuretin, peruvoside, resveratrol, narasin and diacetoxyscirpenol of the natural product isolates, as well as bortezonib, 10-Hydroxycamtothecin, mebendazole, niflumic acid, clindamycin HCl, mecamylamine, chloroquine, mit...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research
This study evaluated the antileishmanial activity of the Hexanic Eluate subfraction from Maytenus guianensis bark (HEMg) incorporated in microparticles of PLGA. One batch of microparticles produced contained HEMg (HEMgP) and another contained the PLGA polymer alone (PCTE). The microparticles were characterized in regards to diameter, Zeta potential, encapsulation rate and morphology and their cytotoxicity was evaluated against J774 macrophages. The infection assay employing peritoneal macrophages witth L. amazonensis and cytokine dosages were performed on the cell supernatants. The groups of infected BALB/C mice were treat...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
an AG Abstract Chagas disease has become a global health problem due to migration of infected people out of Latin America to non-endemic countries. For more than 40 years, only the nitroimidazole compounds Benznidazole and Nifurtimox, have been used for specific treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with disappointing results, specially due to the long duration of treatment and adverse events in the chronic phase. In the last years, ergosterol inhibitors have been also proposed for specific treatment. Different randomized clinical trials were performed for evaluating their treatment efficacy and safety. One of ...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Antitrypanosomal Effects of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern. &Timler Extracts on African Trypanosomes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019;2019:1730452 Authors: Dofuor AK, Djameh GI, Ayertey F, Bolah P, Amoa-Bosompem M, Kyeremeh K, Okine LK, Gwira TM, Ohashi M Abstract African trypanosomiasis is a disease caused by the parasitic protozoa of the Trypanosoma genus. Despite several efforts at chemotherapeutic interventions, the disease poses serious health and economic concerns to humans and livestock of many sub-Saharan African countries. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern. &T...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Conclusions: Only 19 of the cultivated medicinal plant species mentioned by interviewed persons are described in the World Health Organization monographs. This means that the remaining 52 species are used without the World Health Organization approved medical indications, based solely on the folk medicine knowledge and experience. This study showed that the folk use of plants is strongly rooted in daily practice in the studied area. PMID: 31239859 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Yimer EM, Tuem KB, Karim A, Ur-Rehman N, Anwar F Abstract The seed of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has been used in different civilization around the world for centuries to treat various animal and human ailments. So far, numerous studies demonstrated the seed of Nigella sativa and its main active constituent, thymoquinone, to be medicinally very effective against various illnesses including different chronic illness: neurological and mental illness, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, inflammatory conditions, and infertility as well as various infectious diseases due to bacterial, fungal, parasitic,...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
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