Molecular mechanism of azithromycin resistance among typhoidal Salmonella stains in Bangladesh identified through passive pediatric surveillance

ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departments to be treated with injectable antibiotics like carbapenems, thereby further burdening already struggling health systems in endemic regions. Moreover, with the dearth of novel antimicrobials in the horizon, we risk losing our primary defense against widespread mortality from typhoid. In addition to rolling out the WHO prequalified typhoid conjugate vaccine in endemic areas to decrease the risk of pan-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains, it is also imperative to implement antimicrobial stewardship and water sanitation and hygiene intervention to decrease the overall burden of enteric fever.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionThese data suggest that a combined 2-h infusion with a higher dosage of meropenem, including a loading dose, may be successful to achieve effective PK parameters.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Yuxue Cao, Mahdi Naseri, Yan He, Chun Xu, Laurence J. Walsh, Zyta M. ZioraAbstractBiofilms can be produced by multiple species or by a single strain of bacteria. The biofilm state enhances the resistance of the resident microorganisms to antimicrobial agents by producing extracellular polymeric substances. Typically, antibiotics are used to stop the growth of bacteria, but emerging resistance has limited their effectiveness. Bacteria in biofilms are less susceptible to antibiotics compared with their free-floatin...
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Journal of ColoproctologyAuthor(s): Seyedeh Elham Norollahi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Hamidian, Zeynab Khazaee Kohpar, Rezvan Azadi, Pooya Rostami, Sogand Vahidi, Sahar Ghazanfari, Farnaz Azar Shabe, Roya Khaksar, Ali Akbar SamadaniAbstractColorectal cancer is one of the most important malignancies in the classification of gastrointestinal cancers. One of the predisposing factors at molecular level for this cancer is via WNT signaling which is associated with the vast numbers of different genes. Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether Adenomatous Polyposis ...
Source: Journal of Coloproctology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
We reported a general increase of unnecessary urine cultures in both community and hospital patients. The most representative microorganism isolated from Community (58.2%) and Hospital (47.6%) was E. coli. UTIs causative bacteria in hospitalized patients was more than twice as resistant to Trimetoprim/sulphamethoxazole (OR 2.26) and Imipenem (OR 2.56), for Gram-positive and Gram-negative, respectively, than in Community patients. Nitrofurantoin was the only agent without differences in resistance rate between community and hospital UTIs. Therefore, physicians could use it as a definitive therapy for uncomplicated cystitis ...
Source: New Microbiologica - Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research
Authors: Rovida F, Nepita EV, Giardina F, Piralla A, Campanini G, Baldanti F Abstract About 15,000 hospitalizations due to group A Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVA) are recorded each year in Italy. In the present study, we report the seasonal distribution and molecular characterization of RVA in pediatric and adult hospitalized patients in the period September 2015-April 2018 in Pavia province, Lombardy Region. During the study period, stool samples of 1450 patients with acute gastroenteritis were analyzed and 122 were RVA positive, the majority belonging to pediatric patients (94.0%) while only a minority of patient...
Source: New Microbiologica - Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research
Liaison psychiatry in low &middle income countries: Experiences at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan. Asian J Psychiatr. 2019 Nov 26;48:101889 Authors: Saeed H, Siddiqui SA, Mansoor M, Khan MM Abstract AIMS AND METHODS: Our study investigated the pattern of referrals made to psychiatric services from the general wards of Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH). Data on all cases referred between years 2015 to 2016 was collected retrospectively from the medical records. Information included socio-demographic details, reason for referral, past psychiatric history, treatment, mana...
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study can contribute to decision-making about potential prices for a chikungunya vaccine once it becomes available in Brazil. We demonstrated the relevance of the anchoring effect as a possible influence applied to the maximum value of the WTP associated with respondents' preference for a new vaccine. Finally, we encourage the development of a chikungunya virus vaccine to benefit the Brazilian population. PMID: 31815561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research - Category: Health Management Tags: Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res Source Type: research
This study demonstrated an alternative strategy for S. enteritidis determination, and further proved the utility and practicality of nanobody-based reagents in bioanalytical chemistry.
Source: Food Chemistry - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
A multivalent HIV vaccine that consists of envelope protein (gp120 Env) and either DNA or NYVAC vectors during priming leads to early and potent IgG-binding antibody responses, according to results from the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN).Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Allergy Headlines - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: HIV/AIDS News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Qingtao Liu, Jing Yang, Xinmei Huang, Yuzhuo Liu, Kaikai Han, Dongmin Zhao, Lijiao Zhang, Yin LiAbstractAvian influenza subtype H9N2 infection is a mild but highly contagious disease that is associated with a decrease in the efficacy of vaccine interventions, and an increase in susceptibility to secondary infections in poultry. However, the immune evasion mechanism of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in chickens is poorly understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells of major importance, involved in innate ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
More News: Antimicrobial Resistance | Azithromycin | Bangladesh Health | Ceftriaxone | Endemics | Gastroenteritis | Genetics | Outbreaks | Pakistan Health | Pediatrics | Rocephin | Salmonella | Tropical Medicine | Typhoid | Typhoid Vaccine | Vaccines | Zithromax