Post-self-repair process of neuron cells under the influence of neutral and cationic nanoparticles

Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Chinese Chemical LettersAuthor(s): Ting Wang, Guanwen Qu, Yu Deng, Jing Shang, Zhangqi Feng, Fengyu Yang, Nongyue He, Jie ZhengAbstractThe prevalence of functionalized nanoparticles in biological and clinical fields attracts intensive toxicology investigations. Minimizing the nanoparticles’ biohazard remains a challenge due to the insufficient understanding on the nanoparticle-induced cell death mechanism. In the presented study, we observed the lysosome and genome injuries and so caused cell cycle changes and regulations of retinal ganglion neuron cell 5 (RGC-5) induced by aminated and alkylated nanoparticles. Alkylated nanoparticles induced malignant lysosome and genome damages followed by severe post-self-repair responses. RGC-5 treated with alkylated nanoparticles presented dramatic S phase prolongation resulted from cyclin E accumulation mediated by Fbw7 downregulation, which assisted DNA replication after failed self-repair of the malignantly damaged DNA caused by alkylated nanoparticles. Differently, aminated nanoparticles in RGC-5 induced moderate lysosome and genome injuries and these damages could be repaired in the p21-involved pathway, so that cells did not induce apparent cyclin E accumulation nor Fbw7 downregulation as post-self-repair response. These results helped us to understand the toxicity of analogous nanoparticles on retinal ganglions such as glaucoma treatment. This work provides new insig...
Source: Chinese Chemical Letters - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

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In conclusion, with study of the frailty syndrome still in its infancy, frailty analysis remains a major challenge. It is a challenge that needs to be overcome in order to shed light on the multiple mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Although several mechanisms contribute to frailty, immune system alteration seems to play a central role: this syndrome is characterized by increased levels of pro-inflammatory markers and the resulting pro-inflammatory status can have negative effects on various organs. Future studies should aim to better clarify the immune system alteration in frailty, and seek to esta...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
It has for some years now been possible to reprogram adult somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells that are functionally equivalent to embryonic stem cells. This is achieved by overexpressing some or all of the Yamanaka transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) proteins. One of the most interesting outcomes of this process is that cells so treated reverse epigenetic markers of aging to some degree, and repair their mitochondrial damage. Thus the research community has started to induce this same reprogramming in living animals to observe the results. If done haphazardly, the outcome is unrestrained cancer...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
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Chronic inflammation in nervous system tissue is a common theme in age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including those that affect the retina. One source of this inflammation is the activities of microglia, a class of immune cell resident in the central nervous system. Microglia have a number of important roles to play in nervous system function beyond those of clearing debris and destroying errant cells. As immune function and tissue integrity become disarrayed with age, microglia grow overactive and inflammatory to the point of causing harm rather than helping to resolve issues. Due to the complexity of cellular meta...
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Publication date: Available online 12 March 2017 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Hongli Yang, Juan Reynaud, Howard Lockwood, Galen Williams, Christy Hardin, Luke Reyes, Cheri Stowell, Stuart K. Gardiner, Claude F. Burgoyne In a series of previous publications we have proposed a framework for conceptualizing the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. That framework proposes important roles for intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-related stress and strain, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), systemic and ocular determinants of blood flow, inflammation, auto-immunity, genetics, and other non...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Stem cell therapies produce benefits, but for most of the presently available treatments this appears to be the result of changes in the signaling environment rather than any other activity on the part of the transplanted cells. The newly introduced stem cells fail to integrate with local tissues and typically don't last long after transplantation. So what exactly produces the observed beneficial changes in cellular behavior, level of inflammation, and degree of regeneration? There are no doubt many distinct mechanisms, as nothing is ever simple when it comes to cell biology, but of late researchers have focused on a role ...
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Purpose of review: The present review aims to provide an update of applications of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for disease modeling, cell/gene therapy, and drug screening for optic neuropathies. Recent findings: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a characteristic of optic neuropathies. Human iPSCs can serve as a model to investigate disease pathology and potential repair mechanisms. In recent years, significant progress has been made in generating RGCs from iPSCs. Various groups have reported the potential of iPSCs for modeling optic neuropathies, such as glaucoma. The literature also highlights t...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - Category: Surgery Tags: CELLULAR TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Philip J. O'Connell Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to provide an update of applications of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for disease modeling, cell/gene therapy, and drug screening for optic neuropathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a characteristic of optic neuropathies. Human iPSCs can serve as a model to investigate disease pathology and potential repair mechanisms. In recent years, significant progress has been made in generating RGCs from iPSCs. Various groups have reported the potential of iPSCs for modeling optic neuropathies, such as glaucoma. The litera...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Organ Transplant Source Type: research
In this study, a PET camera was used to examine individual differences in the D2 system in a group consisting of 181 healthy individuals between the age of 64 and 68. All participants also had to take part in an all-inclusive performance test of the long-term episodic memory, working memory and processing speed along with an MRI assessment (which was used to measure the size of various parts of the brain). Researchers could see that the D2 system was positively linked to episodic memory, but not to working memory or to processing speed by relating PET registrations to the cognitive data. Researchers could also see that the...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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