The Global Ascendency of OXA-48-Type Carbapenemases.

The Global Ascendency of OXA-48-Type Carbapenemases. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2019 Dec 18;33(1): Authors: Pitout JDD, Peirano G, Kock MM, Strydom KA, Matsumura Y Abstract SUMMARYSurveillance studies have shown that OXA-48-like carbapenemases are the most common carbapenemases in Enterobacterales in certain regions of the world and are being introduced on a regular basis into regions of nonendemicity, where they are responsible for nosocomial outbreaks. OXA-48, OXA-181, OXA-232, OXA-204, OXA-162, and OXA-244, in that order, are the most common enzymes identified among the OXA-48-like carbapenemase group. OXA-48 is associated with different Tn1999 variants on IncL plasmids and is endemic in North Africa and the Middle East. OXA-162 and OXA-244 are derivatives of OXA-48 and are present in Europe. OXA-181 and OXA-232 are associated with ISEcp1, Tn2013 on ColE2, and IncX3 types of plasmids and are endemic in the Indian subcontinent (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) and certain sub-Saharan African countries. Overall, clonal dissemination plays a minor role in the spread of OXA-48-like carbapenemases, but certain high-risk clones (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 147 [ST147], ST307, ST15, and ST14 and Escherichia coli ST38 and ST410) have been associated with the global dispersion of OXA-48, OXA-181, OXA-232, and OXA-204. Chromosomal integration of bla OXA-48 within Tn6237 occurred among E. coli ST38 isolates, especially in the United Kingd...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractFoodborne viral diseases are a major public health threat and pose a huge burden on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Enteric viruses are the causative agents of most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks. Egypt is classified by WHO among the regions with intermediate to high endemicity for various enteric viruses. This is manifested by the high prevalence rates of different enteric virus infections among Egyptian population such as Hepatitis A and E viruses, human rotaviruses, human noroviruses, human astroviruses, and human adenovirus. Recently, a number of foodborne gastroenteritis and acute ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In conclusion, using a simple, fast, and inexpensive detection method, such as LAMP, especially in endemic regions or in an outbreak to control spreading of pathogens, is very important for public health.
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions TheK. pneumoniae ST11 NDM-1 outbreak has dramatically expanded in Poland since 2012, which may bring about a countrywide endemic situation in the near future. In addition, the so-far limitedK. pneumoniae ST147 NDM-1 outbreak plus multiple NDM imports from different countries were observed in 2015 –16.
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide are the drugs of choice. Resistance to common antigiardial drugs has increased in recent years. As such, the search for new molecular targets for antigiardial drugs is urgently needed. In general, treatment of asymptomatic carriers is not recommended. Purification of water supply is an important preventive measure. PMID: 31210116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results are similar to those reported from the state of Veracruz, Mexico, in which out of 33 samples of urine of patients with GBS two had a positive RT-PCR for ZIKV. Simultaneous processing of serum, CSF, urine, and saliva by RT-PCR may increase the success of diagnosis of GBS associated to ZIKV. Introduction In April 2016, a report of Epidemiological Surveillance for Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in Mexico reported 93 autochthonous laboratory-confirmed cases, collected between November 2015 and February 2016, and distributed amongst eight states of the country (1). In these patients, clinical manifest...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion This study revealed that Enterococcus species with biofilm potentials and extracellular virulence properties extensively occur in retail RTE shrimps. A significant number of isolated strains are resistant to antibiotics and harbor resistant and virulent genes, denoting a significant route of resistance and virulence dissemination to bacteria in humans. There is an inadequate understanding of the intricacies of antibiotic-resistant enterococci of food origin that belong to enterococci aside from E. faecium and E. faecalis. Findings from this study reveal detailed antibiotic resistance of E. durans, E. casselifla...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We describe the unexpected binding of S-layer to cells devoid of DC-SIGN but also confirm that the presence of DC-SIGN was essential for S-layer’s antiviral activity. S-layer protein exerted its antiviral effect with different kinetics than mannan, a known viral inhibitor that also acts on DC-SIGN (Yu et al., 2017). Together our results suggest that inhibition of viral entry by S-layer occurs via a novel S-layer/DC-SIGN interaction. Materials and Methods Isolation of S-Layer Proteins S-layer proteins were extracted from overnight cultures of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 cells grown in MRS medium at 37°C by using 6...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion The results obtained from this research shows, in general, the fragility in the social and political infrastructure necessary to improve the living conditions of populations, particularly those that depend on family agriculture in drought prone areas. The conditions of social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities presented in the region can be amplified by the drought process, and can aggravate the impacts resulting drought events, thus disadvantaging the population of this region, as shown in the Fig. 1. The general perception of the interviewees of the health sector shows an agreement with what is found...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
According to this study, blaOXA-48 producing gram negative bacteria were frequent in our hospital. The prevalance of blaVIM gene among metallo-beta-lactamases and coexistence with blaOXA-48 gene was remarkable. The frequency of blaNDM producing isolates in our hospital was not detected as high yet. In this study, the identification of carbapenemase producing bacteria as outbreak strains in our hospital indicated that cross-sectional surveillance for carbapenemase-producing bacteria from each patient was valuable in terms of early diagnosis of outbreaks. PMID: 29642825 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
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