Brain compensation during visuospatial working memory in premanifest Huntington's disease

In this study, we used a quantitative model of compensation, known as the CRUNCH (Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis), to explicitly characterise compensation in pre-HD. The assumption of the model is that fMRI activity increases as task difficulty increases (compensatory effect). However, when individuals reach the ‘CRUNCH’ point, where task difficulty exceeds their neural resources, fMRI activity and performance declines. We acquired fMRI data (n = 15 pre-HD; n = 15 controls) during performance of an fMRI visuospatial working memory task with low, intermediate-1, intermediate-2, and high memory loads. Consistent with the CRUNCH prediction, pre-HD individuals showed decreased fMRI activity in left intraparietal sulcus at high memory load, compared to healthy controls who showed increased fMRI activity in left intraparietal sulcus at high memory load. Contrary to the other CRUNCH prediction, the pre-HD group did not show compensatory increase in fMRI activity at lower levels of memory loads in left intraparietal sulcus. Our findings provide partial support for the validity of CRUNCH in pre-HD.
Source: Neuropsychologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
An Oklahoma judge ordered Johnson &Johnson to pay $572 million for its role in the opioid crisis in a historic ruling on Monday, marking the first time an opioid manufacturer has been deemed responsible in court and made to pay damages. It could have implications for the slew of lawsuits filed against opioid manufacturers and distributors throughout the country. A much bigger federal case before an Ohio judge involves at least 1,600 consolidated lawsuits from cities and counties from across the country, including hard-hit regions like Portsmouth, Ohio and Huntington, W.Va. The nationwide suit was filed in Ohio because ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized legal onetime opioids Source Type: news
Abstract BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The striatum is one of the first brain regions that show detectable atrophy in HD. Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 tesla (3 T) revealed reduced functional connectivity between striatum and motor cortex in the prodromal period of HD. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have suggested segregated corticostriatal pathways with distinct loops involving different cortical regions, which may be investigated using fMRI at an ultra-high field (7 T) with enhanced sensitivity compare...
Source: Neuro-Degenerative Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurodegener Dis Source Type: research
In this study we show, for the first time, significant alterations in cholesterol efflux capacity in adolescents throughout the range of BMI, a relationship between six circulating adipocyte-derived EVs microRNAs targeting ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux capacity, and in vitro alterations of cholesterol efflux in macrophages exposed to visceral adipose tissue adipocyte-derived EVs acquired from human subjects. These results suggest that adipocyte-derived EVs, and their microRNA content, may play a critical role in the early pathological development of ASCVD. Commentary on the Developing UK Government Position on Hea...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractHuman age prediction is an interesting and applicable issue in different fields. It can be based on various criteria such as face image, DNA methylation, chest plate radiographs, knee radiographs, dental images and etc. Most of the age prediction researches have mainly been based on images. Since the image processing and Machine Learning (ML) techniques have grown up, the investigations were led to use them in age prediction problem. The implementations would be used in different fields, especially in medical applications. Brain Age Estimation (BAE) has attracted more attention in recent years and it would be so he...
Source: Journal of Medical Systems - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
Abstract Neuroacanthocytosis is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease, including Chorea-acanthocytosis, McLeod syndrome, Huntington's disease-like 2, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, where Choreaacanthocytosis occupies the main entity of this disease group. Here, a classic case of Chorea-acanthocytosis is reported that exhibited gradually deteriorating abnormal movements of limbs and face, swallowing difficulty, and lip and cheek biting for the past two years. Peripheral blood smears revealed that 35% of the red blood cells were acanthocytes and electron microcopy scans clearly showed t...
Source: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: J Integr Neurosci Source Type: research
Conclusion Due to its long-term and often invisible course, CCCI has received less attention than acute cerebral ischemic stroke. However, without appropriate intervention, CCCI may lead to a variety of adverse events. Because the pathophysiological changes associated with CCCI are complex, pharmacological research in this area has been disappointing. Recent research suggests that RLIC, which is less invasive and more well-tolerated than drug treatment, can activate endogenous protective mechanisms during CCCI. In the present report, we reviewed studies related to CCCI (Table 1), as well as those related to stroke and sta...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion The key problem with the ND field is the lack of understanding in the events preceding the development of protein-based markers – such as Tau – currently used to diagnose NDs. By this stage, the diseases become more difficult to treat. SncRNAs play an important regulatory role in the maintenance of the homeostatic brain. Therefore, changes in their concentration levels can be indicative of mechanistic changes that could precede protein-based markers. One single sncRNA biomarker is unlikely to differentiate between diseases. However, a combination of sncRNA biomarkers could be illustrative of the me...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Grand Total EEG Score Can Differentiate Parkinson's Disease From Parkinson-Related Disorders Ela Austria Barcelon1,2*, Takahiko Mukaino1, Jun Yokoyama1, Taira Uehara2, Katsuya Ogata2, Jun-ichi Kira1 and Shozo Tobimatsu2 1Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan2Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan Background: Semi-quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis is easy to perform and has been used to differentiate dementias, as well ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Edoardo Rosario de Natale, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Marios PolitisAbstractCell replacement therapy with graft transplantation has been tested as a disease-modifying treatment in neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the damage of a predominant cell type, such as substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) or striatal medium spiny projection neurons in Huntington's disease (HD). The results of these trials are mixed with success in preclinical and pilot open-label trials, which were not consistently re...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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