Structure-functional changes in eNAMPT at high concentrations mediate mouse and human beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes

Conclusions/interpretationWe have characterised a novel mechanism of beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. At low physiological levels, eNAMPT exists in dimer form and maintains beta cell function and identity through NAD-dependent mechanisms. However, as eNAMPT levels rise, as in type 2 diabetes, structure-functional changes occur resulting in marked elevation of monomeric eNAMPT, which induces a diabetic phenotype in pancreatic islets. Strategies to selectively target monomeric eNAMPT could represent promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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AbstractThe age-performance relationship describes changes in the organism ’s structural and functional capabilities over the course of the lifespan. The typical, empirical pattern is an asymmetrical inverted-U shape association with peak capacity occurring early in life. This process is well described in the literature, with an increasing interest in features that chara cterize this pattern, such as the rate of growth, age of peak performance, and rate of decline with aging. This is usually examined in cohorts of individuals followed over time with repeat assessments of physical or cognitive abilities. This framewor...
Source: Archives of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The objective of our study was to evaluate if the replacement of LCT by MCT in high-fat diets could prevent and/or reduce metabolic disorders. For this purpose, two cohorts of C57BL/6 mice were fed during 10 weeks with three isocaloric high-fat diets with variable MCT content. Cohort A was composed of lean mice while cohort B was composed of obese, insulin resistant mice. In cohort A, replacement of LCT by MCT preserved metabolic health, in part by triggering hepatic thermogenesis. We further found that medium chain fatty acids promote thermogenesis markers within cultured hepatocytes in a FFAR1/GPR40-dependent manner. I...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
Authors: Chawla R, Jaggi S Abstract The intricate relationship between obesity and T2DM is well recognised, as evidenced by the coining of the term 'diabesity' by Dr Ethan Sims that encompasses the two.Most patients with type 2 diabetes are obese and the global rise in obesity largely explains the epidemic rise in incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes(T2DM) over the last few decades. Obesity has been linked to insulin resistance and predisposes to metabolic abnormalities including prediabetes, type diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.Weight reduction is an essential component to prevent progression from predi...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to determine the association of Computed tomography quantified visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using CKD-EPI formula, diabetes mellitus, body mass index (BMI), proteinuria, lipid profile, and hypertension. Increased adipose tissue is the primary phenotypic characteristic of obesity. The amount and distribution of adipose tissue is associated with many adverse consequences, as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease etc. Abdominal CT with semi-automated software can quantify adipose tissue and predict the risk...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Conclusion: This pilot study showed that a diabetes specific nutritional supplement was useful in improving glycemic control and reducing glycemic response in overweight and obese Asian Indian adults with T2DM. PMID: 31801326 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
ska M Abstract In the study, 305 patients of both genders were enrolled and divided into three groups: obese (BMI> 30 kg/m2), patients who were diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and control, normal weight healthy volunteers. At least one of ten different phthalate metabolites was determined in the urine samples of 49.84% all enrolled participants. In the obese subgroup, the sum of all urinary phthalate metabolites was positively associated with TG levels (p = 0.031) together with derived TC/HDL and TG/HDL ratios (p = 0.023 and 0.015), respectively. Urinary MEP concentration was positively correlated wi...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
ConclusionsChildren with obesity and increased liver transaminases as surrogates of NAFLD should be screened for T2DM.
Source: Pediatric Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
DiscussionThis overview will assess current evidence from systematic reviews for the association between cadmium exposure and risk of T2DM and other metabolic morbidities. This overview may be helpful for policy-makers and healthcare teams aiming to mitigate T2DM risk in populations at risk of cadmium exposure.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO CRD42019125956
Source: Systematic Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
AbstractPurposesBiliopancreatic diversion could improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to investigate the effects of biliary jejunostomy on the improvement of glucose.Materials and MethodsTwenty-seven type 2 diabetes patients underwent biliary jejunostomy between January 2013 and January 2018 in our hospital and were followed up. Demographic data, operation details, body weight, food intake, effects on diabetes control, and biomedical parameters were collected and analyzed.ResultsAs defined previously, 3 of 27 diabetes patients were “under control,” 8 patients were “in remission,” and 12 pati...
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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