Risk factors of foot and mouth disease in an endemic area on low vaccination rate in Xayaboury province of Lao People ’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR)

AbstractIn Xayaboury province, located in the northern region of Lao PDR, the foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccination campaign just began in 2009. Up until now, a small number of farms have been vaccinated. When FMD outbreaks occur, it is interesting to determine the risk factors of FMD, especially in the area where vaccination rates are low. The questionnaire survey, using a case-control design at the household level, was carried out. From 59 villages with a total number of 434 households, 181 households who experienced FMD were assigned as case households, 146 households without FMD occurrence inside the outbreak villages as inside control households, and 107 households without FMD occurrence outside the outbreak villages as outside control households. Household owners were interviewed. The logistic regression model was used to identify the relationship between FMD occurrence (dependent variable) and the collected data (independent variables), including the social status of livestock owners, FMD prevention strategies, and farm locations. A non-parametric test was performed to determine the association of FMD and network parameters of animal movements among villages. In general, results show that a limited number of holders did vaccinate animals before the outbreaks (13.8 –17.8%). The results indicated that livestock owners who had known information about FMD before the outbreaks had been less severely affected by the FMD outbreak than the owners who had not known inf...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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This study describes the development of a novel RT-LAMP assay for the detection of PPRV nucleic acid by targeting the N-protein gene. The RT-LAMP assay was evaluated using cell culture propagated PPRVs, field samples from clinically infected animals and samples from experimentally infected animals encompassing all four lineages (I-IV) of PPRV. The test displayed 100% concordance with RT-qPCR when considering an RT-qPCR cut-off value of CT >40. Further, the RT-LAMP assay was evaluated using experimental and outbreak samples without prior RNA extraction making it more time and cost-effective. This assay provides a sol...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Glanders is a zoonotic infection, and because of recent outbreaks among Equidae family, the possibility of its reemergence among human populations is a crisis. The causative agent is Burkholderia mallei, a Gram-negative, aerobic and highly contagious bacterium causing severe impacts with low infectious dose transmitted via direct contact to respiratory secretions, skin exudates of animals and fomite. Despite high mortality rate, no proper vaccination has been developed to hinder the infection spread. The disease is more prevalent in Australia and Southeast Asia, but has been eradicated in developed countries. Glanders&rsqu...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Vlad Petrovan, Luca Popescu, Neha Sangewar, Catherine Elijah, Ana Stoian, Matthew Olcha, Lindsey Ennen, Jocelyn Bray, Richard P. Bishop, Suryakant D. Waghela, Maureen Sheahan, Raymond R.R. Rowland, Waithaka MwangiAbstractAfrican Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a hemorrhagic disease in swine and wild boars with a fatality rate close to 100%. Less virulent strains cause subchronic or chronic forms of the disease. The virus is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and an outbreak in Georgia in 2007 spread to Armenia, Russia, U...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral transboundary disease endemic throughout Africa and of high economic importance that affects cattle and domestic water buffaloes. Since 2012, the disease has spread rapidly and widely throughout the Middle Eastern and Balkan regions, southern Caucasus and parts of the Russian Federation. Before vaccination campaigns took their full effect, the disease continued spreading from region to region, mainly showing seasonal patterns despite implementing control and eradication measures. The disease is capable of appearing several hundred kilometers away from initial (focal) ou...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives The mechanisms which result in reduced viral replication and lack of disease in African wild suids after ASFV infection are largely unknown. The data so far indicate that this is not due to an intrinsic difference in the ability of the virus to replicate in macrophages from these hosts. A more likely explanation is that the innate immune system of these hosts is better able to control virus replication resulting in a reduced systemic infection and reduced pathogenesis. This may involve a balance between virus and host factors which has evolved over long term infections of these hosts. Se...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Maxime Boutier1, Owen Donohoe1,2, R. Keller Kopf3, Paul Humphries3, Joy A. Becker4, Jonathan Marshall5,6 and Alain Vanderplasschen1* 1Department of Parasitic and Infectious Diseases, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium 2Bioscience Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone, Ireland 3School of Environmental Sciences, Institute for Land Water &Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia 4Faculty of Science, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia 5Queensland Department of Environment and Science, Water Planning Ec...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus (LASV), which is endemic throughout much of West Africa. The virus primarily circulates in the Mastomys natalensis reservoir and is transmitted to humans through contact with infectious rodents or their secretions; human-to-human transmission is documented as well. With the exception of Dengue fever, LASV has the highest human impact of any haemorrhagic fever virus. On-going outbreaks in Nigeria have resulted in unprecedented mortality. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has listed LASV as a high priority pathogen for ...
Source: Immunology Letters - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
We describe the unexpected binding of S-layer to cells devoid of DC-SIGN but also confirm that the presence of DC-SIGN was essential for S-layer’s antiviral activity. S-layer protein exerted its antiviral effect with different kinetics than mannan, a known viral inhibitor that also acts on DC-SIGN (Yu et al., 2017). Together our results suggest that inhibition of viral entry by S-layer occurs via a novel S-layer/DC-SIGN interaction. Materials and Methods Isolation of S-Layer Proteins S-layer proteins were extracted from overnight cultures of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 cells grown in MRS medium at 37°C by using 6...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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