How does spending time outdoors protect against myopia? A review.

How does spending time outdoors protect against myopia? A review. Br J Ophthalmol. 2019 Nov 13;: Authors: Lingham G, Mackey DA, Lucas R, Yazar S Abstract Myopia is an increasingly common condition that is associated with significant costs to individuals and society. Moreover, myopia is associated with increased risk of glaucoma, retinal detachment and myopic maculopathy, which in turn can lead to blindness. It is now well established that spending more time outdoors during childhood lowers the risk of developing myopia and may delay progression of myopia. There has been great interest in further exploring this relationship and exploiting it as a public health intervention aimed at preventing myopia in children. However, spending more time outdoors can have detrimental effects, such as increased risk of melanoma, cataract and pterygium. Understanding how spending more time outdoors prevents myopia could advance development of more targeted interventions for myopia. We reviewed the evidence for and against eight facets of spending time outdoors that may protect against myopia: brighter light, reduced peripheral defocus, higher vitamin D levels, differing chromatic spectrum of light, higher physical activity, entrained circadian rhythms, less near work and greater high spatial frequency (SF) energies. There is solid evidence that exposure to brighter light can reduce risk of myopia. Peripheral defocus is able to regulate eye growth but whether spending time...
Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Br J Ophthalmol Source Type: research

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Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluate light-induced melatonin suppression under flickering and non-flickering light conditions. Fifteen male subjects between the ages of 20 and 23 years (mean ± SD, 21.9 ± 1.9) were exposed to three light conditions (dim, 100-Hz flickering and non-flickering light) from 1:00 a.m. to 2:30 a.m. Saliva samples were taken just before 1:00 and at 1:15, 1:30, 2:00, and 2:30 a.m. Repeated-measure t-test with Bonferroni correction showed a significant decrease in melatonin levels under both 100-Hz and non-flickering light conditions compared to dim light conditions af...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Elisa Castaldi, Claudia Lunghi, Maria Concetta MorroneAbstractBetween 1-5:100 people worldwide have never experienced normotypic vision due to a condition called amblyopia, and about 1:4000 suffer from inherited retinal dystrophies that progressively lead to blindness. While a wide range of technologies and therapies are being developed to restore vision, a fundamental question still remains unanswered: would the adult visual brain retain a sufficient plastic potential to learn how to ‘see’ after a prolo...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Hessam S, Bechara FG Abstract Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS/AI) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Several studies showed that perianal, perineal and gluteal involvement is more common in men. Axillary, submammary and inguinal localizations seem to be more prevalent in women. Involvement of the genitoanal region is associated with a higher reduced quality of live and sexual health compared to other locations. Moreover HS/AI in the genitoanal region can lead to serious complications. The knowledge of perianal fistula formation, pubogenital lymphedema and squamous cell carcinoma, w...
Source: Der Hautarzt: Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete - Category: Dermatology Tags: Hautarzt Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Reproductive BioMedicine OnlineAuthor(s): Andrea BUSNELLI, Amerigo VITAGLIANO, Laura MENSI, Stefano ACERBONI, Alessandro BULFONI, Francesca FILIPPI, Edgardo SOMIGLIANAAbstractSeveral epidemiological studies investigated the effects of cancer therapies on fertility. However, conflicting data have been reported.The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the chances of childbirth in women survived from different types of cancer.We systematically searched Pubmed, MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus, from database inception to July 17, 2019, for published ...
Source: Reproductive BioMedicine Online - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Meta GeneAuthor(s): Zainab Nizar Jawad, Weaam AwadAbstractBackgroundSeveral genetic polymorphisms have been supposed to participate in urolithiasis progression. We investigated the association of the urokinase gene 3’-UTR and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms with urolithiasis in an Iraqi population.MethodsTotally, 104 first kidney stone formers (63 males and 41 females), 100 recurrent stone formers (56 males and 44 females) and 127 healthy subjects (71 males and 56 females) were enrolled. The DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood; next the urokina...
Source: Meta Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Rateb MF, Abdel Motaal H, Shehata M, Anwar M, Tohamy D, Saleh MGA Abstract Purpose: To compare safety and efficacy between a low-cost glaucoma drainage device (GDD), the Aurolab aqueous drainage implant (AADI), and the Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI) in refractory childhood glaucoma in Egypt. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who received either an AADI or BGI at a tertiary care postgraduate teaching institute. Children aged
Source: Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
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Source: Strabismus - Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Authors: Jabalee J, Towle R, Lawson J, Dickman C, Garnis C Abstract Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), the product of the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3) gene, catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide. Ceramide acts on various signaling pathways to influence cell proliferation, survival, and stress response. Altered levels of sphingolipids and ceramides have been reported in various cancer types, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC patients exhibit a poor 5-year survival rate of 50%, a figure that has remained stagnant for decades. To overcome this requires a better underst...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
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