Phylogenetic affinity of an enigmatic Rubiaceae from the Seychelles revealing a recent biogeographic link with Central Africa: gen. nov. Seychellea and trib. nov. Seychelleeae

Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and EvolutionAuthor(s): Sylvain G. Razafimandimbison, Kent Kainulainen, Bruno Senterre, Charles Morel, Catarina RydinAbstractThe granitic islands of the Seychelles harbor about 268 native angiosperm species, with 28% being endemics there. The Seychelles biota contains a mix of ancient taxa with Gondwanan origins and young taxa that arrived there via dispersals. We investigate the phylogenetic position of an enigmatic, critically endangered, Seychellean endemic of the coffee family (Rubiaceae), Psathura/Psychotria sechellarum, and assess whether its presence on the granitic islands of the Seychelles is the result of vicariance or long-distance dispersal. Phylogenetic relationships of the family were reconstructed based on the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses of sequence data from five plastid markers of 107 terminals. Divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian-based method. Psathura/Psychotria sechellarum is distantly related to Psychotria s.l. (including Psathura), and is strongly supported as sister to the Central African genus Colletoecema. Their striking morphological differences, coupled with their geographic separation and genetic distinctness, support the recognition of the new genus Seychellea and new tribe Seychelleeae to accommodate the Seychellean species. The Colletoecema-Seychellea clade constitutes an early-divergent lineage in the subfamily Rubioideae, w...
Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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We examined avian Haemosporidia cytochrome b gene among terrestrial birds on Gorgona Island National Park, Colombia. Three Haemoproteus haplotype groups found on Gorgona Island have a higher genetic similarity to Haemoproteus found in the eastern tropical Pacific than those documented in Africa, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Two of the haplotype groups on the island are generalists in terms of infecting multiple hosts and their wide geographical distribution within the eastern tropical Pacific region, a third Haemoproteus haplogroup appears endemic to Gorgona Island. The overall prevalence of haemosporidian parasites is 57,9% ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Carla Correia-Gomes, Nick SparksAbstractBackyard poultry producers have been associated with outbreaks of exotic (e.g. avian influenza) and endemic (e.g. Salmonella) disease all over the world. Currently in the UK the registration of small flocks (less than 50 birds) with local authorities is voluntary therefore there is not an accurate record of how many keepers and birds there are or where they are located. This lack of information (e.g. how many birds they keep, what type of birds, biosecurity measures they implement, etc....
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, we detected for just the second time a SINV infection in a diseased wild bird (common wood pigeon) from Central Europe. SINV was isolated by cell culture and the complete SINV genome sequence was determined. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affiliation to SINV genotype I with a high similarity to human isolate sequences from Finland, Sweden and Russia. The isolate was genetically distinct from the first avian isolate suggesting the circulation of at least two different SINV strains in Germany.In order to reveal the infection frequency in SINV positive mosquito regions 749 bird blood samples were assaye...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, we detected for just the second time a SINV infection in a diseased wild bird (common wood pigeon) from Central Europe. SINV was isolated by cell culture and the complete SINV genome sequence was determined. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affiliation to SINV genotype I with a high similarity to human isolate sequences from Finland, Sweden and Russia. The isolate was genetically distinct from the first avian isolate suggesting the circulation of at least two different SINV strains in Germany.In order to reveal the infection frequency in SINV positive mosquito regions 749 bird blood samples were assaye...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Momena Habib, Tahir Yaqub, Aziz-ul-Rahman, Tayyebah Sohail, Muhammad Shahbaz, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Munir, Muhammad Zubair ShabbirAbstractNewcastle disease (ND), caused by Avian orthoavulavirus 1 (AOAV-1), affects multiple avian species around the globe. Frequent disease outbreaks are not uncommon even in vaccinates despite routine vaccination and, in this regards, viruses of diverse genotypes originating from natural reservoirs (migratory waterfowls) play an important role in a disease endemic setting. Though genomic characterizati...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects a wide range of avian species worldwide. Recently, several AAvVs of diverse genotypes have emerged with varying genomic and residue substitutions, and subsequent clinical impact on susceptible avian species. We assessed the clinico-pathological influence of two different AAvV 1 pathotypes [wild bird originated-velogenic strain (sub-genotype VIIi, MF437287) and feral pigeon originated-mesogenic strain (sub-genotype VIm, KU885949)] in commercial broiler chickens and pigeons. The velogenic strain caused 100% mortality in both avi...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Authors: Sohn WM, Na BK Abstract The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from 2 representative visiting sites of migratory birds in Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). A totaly 220 freshwater fishes (7 species) were collected from Junam-jeosuji (reservoir), and 127 fishes (7 species) were also collected from Woopo-neup (swamp) in June and October 2017. As the control group, total 312 fish (22 spp.) from Yangcheon in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do were also collected in June and October 2017. All fishes collected in 3 sites were examined with the artif...
Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Korean J Parasitol Source Type: research
Golden Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an important tick-borne human pathogen endemic throughout Asia, Africa and Europe. CCHFV is also an emerging virus, with recent outbreaks in Western Europe. CCHFV can infect a large number of wild and domesticated mammalian species and some avian species, however the virus does not cause severe disease in these animals, but can produce viremia. In humans, CCHFV infection can lead to a severe, life-threating disease characterized by hemodynamic instability, hepatic injury and neurological disorders, with a worldwide lethality rate of ~20–30%. The pathogen...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractNewcastle disease virus (NDV) has a wide avian host range and a high degree of genetic variability, and virulent strains cause Newcastle disease (ND), a worldwide concern for poultry health. Although NDV has been studied in Nigeria, genetic information about the viruses involved in the endemicity of the disease and the transmission that likely occurs at the poultry-wildlife interface is still largely incomplete. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing was performed to provide complete (n = 73) and partial genomic sequence data (n = 38) for NDV isolates collected from domestic and wild birds in Nigeria during 2002-201...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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